The Counters Blog

Amazing Facts About Water!

An acre of corn will give off 4, 000 gallons (15, 000 liters) of water per day in evaporation. If a human does not absorb enough water dehydration is the result. More than half of the water used in a home is used in the bathroom. Public supply represents about 14 percent of total freshwater withdrawals.
Alkaline Water Filter System Whole Home Water Filtration System Part 1 Of 4 | Duration 15 Minutes 8 Seconds Americans receive their drinking water from a public water supply. It is a little known fact, but insufficient water consumption is actually a risk factor for various types of cancer. A whole-house ultraviolet water disinfection system can ensure household water is safe from harmful bacteria and harmful water-borne viruses. Freshwater animals are vanishing faster than those on land or at sea. The weight a person loses directly after intense physical activity is weight from water, not fat. To manufacture new cars, between 13, 737 to 21, 926 gallons of water are used per car. About 6, 800 gallons (25, 700 liters) of water is required to grow a day’s food for a family of four. A person can live about a month without food, but only about a week without water. Most of the earth’s surface water is permanently frozen or salty. Nearly a billion people worldwide have limited access to clean water. Around 700 million people in 43 countries suffer today from water scarcity. Bottled water can be up to 2000 times more expensive than tap water and it may not be as safe. If tap water contains less than the maximum acceptable levels of those contaminants you water is legally safe. Less than 1% of the water treated by public water suppliers is used for drinking and cooking. Thirst ensures that creatures maintain a balance of hydration and nutrients, such as sodium, that are vital to the healthy functioning of cells. We lose over 2 quarts (64 oz) of water every day through the normal vapor exchange of our skin, otherwise known as perspiration.

Watch Alkaline Water Benefits Your Alkaline Water Questions Answered! Alkaline Water Benefits | Duration 2 Minutes 49 Seconds Hydration is critical to blood circulation to allow immune system cells to reach damaged tissues in greater numbers. Ground water contamination is nearly always the result of human activity. There are 12, 000 different toxic chemical compounds in industrial use today, and more than 500 new chemicals are developed each year.

Don’t Confuse PH With Alkalinity by uswatersystems.com

This means that my body may be going into spontaneous remission. I eat the occasional fast food, pizza and even a doughnut once in awhile. I was a victim of a toxic poison working next to a photo machine, inhaling chemicals for 10 years. I bought my own machine and now share this water with friends and family. Why does everyone claim that reverse osmosis is good for drinking if it strips all the minerals out of the water and has a very low ph. It neutralizes the stomach acid for a while, so it is best not to eat for about an hour after drinking water with baking soda. The lab test shows 11994pci/l which is above the 5000 limit. I do not like the taste of water with either one, but that’s just me. And better yet, as you stated, best to get minerals from food other than water and water has a different purpose. We were having skin and hair issues so we installed a certified chloramine catalytic carbon filter system. Anything that a catalytic carbon filter could be adding to the water that would justify the skin to be drier? Just because you have it in your home, does not mean it is in your water. I have recently tested it’s ph level and it is at about 4, so it is acidic. I tried everything to control it naturally, but that didn’t work either. It is truly the only thing different in my life for the last year.

Benefits Of Drinking Water Kangen Water | Duration 5 Minutes 31 Seconds Just dispose of your membrane in a facility that handles hazardous radioactive waste, like a hospital or other facility that knows what to do with the filter. It took me 6 months of drinking this water to get a full detox. I am feeling a little better but have still a long way to go. Alkaline water produced by ionizers and filters are a joke and do nothing. My furnace guy says we have hard water but the lab shows 96mg/l which under the limit of 200. In my opinion, your purify your water as good as possible and take supplements or get it from your diet. Would you recommend something more than the filter on our refrigerator? After you purchase one you will have a lot less money to carry around so it might help your back, but it does nothing for your health. Any opinions on ozone water or methods for alkalizing? We have tried hydrogen tablets, but they imparted a bitter taste. Our hair is much nicer now but our skin is even drier now. Does a high ph interferes on how soap is removed from our skin? Should we be concerned about a water ph 9 causing any health effects? Haven’t tested our well water but would like to add a carbon filter to remove any potential radon since we get our water from the underground well. Even the carbon filter is a great idea (just not if you have high radon) but with high radon you would need areation or air stripping. We are building a new home, with a newly drilled well, and lab tests have determined that our iron levels are very high. We are presently working on a product that will do that.

Best Water Filter Reviews 2019: Countertop and Other Filtration Systems by bestkitchen.pro

In this comprehensive guide, we’ll walk you through the process from start to finish. On this page, you’ll also find our product recommendations in each category of filter. If you’re drinking as much water as you ought to, chances are you’re simultaneously consuming all sorts of undesirable things in large quantities as well. That’s not to mention traces of lead, arsenic, or increasingly, prescription drugs which are flushed down drains.

Alkaline Water Benefits | Best Method Of Water Treatment Health Club | Duration 2 Minutes 39 Seconds Here on our main water filtration page, we’ve included countertop, under-sink, and faucet-mounted models. As you can guess from the name, these filters attach to the end of your faucet in the kitchen sink. Carbon filters are the most common sort to find in these units, but some expensive models offer ion exchange as well. They’re better than a pitcher for drinking water, since you don’t have to refill them and you don’t need to sacrifice any fridge space. The fact that they’re so unobtrusive and easy to install makes them ideal for dorm suites or rented apartments. Of course, they’re not for entire homes, since they’re only a solution for one sink. Still, for cost and convenience, they’re hard to beat!
The filter cartridges which go with it meet all the appropriate specs, for a cost at which most don’t! We think this is the best faucet-mounted option for folks trying to save money! There’s a dual-channel unit which fits onto your spout, with a filtration chamber and two water spouts. Inside the filtration chamber sits a replaceable filter cartridge. While this is hardly a premium plumbing fixture, it’s less leaky than other inexpensive models. The plastic components and the filter cartridge media have antimicrobial coatings to prevent mold and mildew buildup in the fixture. This one’s very easy to install, and you don’t even need tools to do it. This is a good buy for folks who don’t want to worry about keeping track of filter life and so forth. We think it’s worth it, since you won’t have to think about dealing with the company or purchasing replacements in the case that something goes wrong after the initial 2 years. Since they’re not hanging from your spout, these models can pack a lot more filtration media inside!

Aqua Ionizer Deluxe Drink Alkaline Water For Life | Duration 12 Minutes 8 Seconds Just like faucet-mounted filters, you can switch between regular and tap water using these countertop models. Just be aware that countertop models are often quite a bit pricier than faucet-mounted units, and so are the filter replacements. You won’t find anything cheaper that does a decent job in all-purpose filtration! Of course, the low price point is a big appeal of this model. You don’t have to make any modifications to your plumbing or countertop to use this system. As well as removing harmful substances from your water, it adds in some beneficial minerals! Many people also find alkaline water more enjoyable to drink. In the second, coconut shell activated carbon removes chlorine and odor. The real value here is that all 10” standard filter elements will work with this setup! There’s no warranty policy on this, so it’s not as great a long-term investment as our more expensive picks. One quick warning: don’t install the clear model in sun, or you could see some mold/algae issues! As with most countertop systems, you’ll need to judge filter life on your own. This one does a good job filtering out most things thoroughly, but it has limitations. You’ll definitely see better results and performance on our more expensive picks. One of the biggest annoyances with other countertop models these days is leaky housing. It filters water quickly, which makes it very pleasant to use. It actually achieves better filtration scores, while also allowing for faster flow! A block offers more surface area to trap contaminants, and offers less resistance to flow! It fits pretty much any decor, and is a lot more streamlined than other countertop systems. Municipal chemical treatment leaves high amounts of chlorine and fluoride in tap water.

Originoil Fracking Water Cleaning System Gen 2 Completed | Duration 5 Minutes 56 Seconds We’ve included all kinds of systems in this guide, so that you can get a feel for what your options are and which will be most effective. If you’re looking for water filter pitchers or whole-house filtration systems, check out our dedicated guides for those two categories! They’re the simplest, easiest way to clean up your drinking water. As long as you buy from a reputable brand and use appropriate filters, they can make a big difference. The main appeal of faucet-mounted filters is that they’re very convenient. They’re unobtrusive, and you don’t need plumbing skills to install them. Best of all, they’re relatively inexpensive–most won’t cost more than a pitcher. One is for filtered water, and the other is for plain tap water. So, you don’t have to worry about sacrificing health to save money! We’d use the filter for drinking and cooking, and switch to unfiltered for quick plant watering or mopping. Depending on where you buy it, it’s often less than a case of bottled water! We’re fine with having fewer frills if it means the setup will have a longer working life! It’s a great feature, considering how often bacteria get to be issues with these type of setups. This is definitely the slowest of our recommendations, though it still works better than anything else for the price. You have to be very careful not to over-tighten plastic components, or they can crack. Grab some when you buy, too, because this only comes with one! You also get more options as far as the filters you use! It cracks easily, and can be leaky if you don’t treat it very gently. We think these are the best bet if you don’t have room under the sink and you don’t want to use a faucet-mounted filter. They’ll give you better filtration overall than faucet-mounted options, and stay out of your way when you’re doing dishes or need space in the sink to fill large vessels. We suggest it to anyone looking for countertop filtration on a budget. With something as important as water quality, you don’t want to have to take it on faith! You just run a hose from your faucet, set the filter up nearby, and you’re good to go! They last for about 750 gallons per filter, which gives you ~6-9 months, but it depends on your usage. It comes with a hose to run from the faucet to the filter, a spout for dispensing filtered water, and adaptors to fit your faucet. While some said that their issues were resolved quickly and helpfully, others had issues with getting replacement parts for their filters. You’re at the mercy of the company’s generosity if something goes wrong. That’s good news for preventing leaks, but it’s not always easy to open for replacements. The hose doesn’t come with anything to secure it, so you’ll have to work out a way to attach it to your faucet to keep it out of the way while you work in the sink. Also like the competition, it won’t work with non-standard (pull-down, etc.) faucets. It won’t remove fluoride, and it’s not as good at removing industrial chemicals and such as reverse osmosis setups. A lot of countertop water filters say they’ll fit your faucet, but most are a pain to actually get set up and sealed. Another key difference between this and more traditional setups: it’s easy to swap cartridges. This one has a lid which pops right open, so you don’t have to take the whole thing apart every time a filter needs to be changed. Each is self-contained, and you can swap them independently of each other. It’s actually a two-step filter, allowing it to trap both larger and smaller particulate matter. They trap microorganisms and reduce turbidity, and the small pores also trap many different types of smaller particulate. It’s a similar media to those you’ll find in other filters, only in a block format instead of granular particles. The first and last filters are to be changed every 6 months, while the middle stage will last about a year. This way, you can save 1/3 of the cost by stretching out the middle stage!

Well Filters Well Water Filtration Systems by filterwater.com

We also have many test kits to test your water quality, including at-home well test kit and more advanced electronic tester you can connect to mobile phone. This unit works in situation where an arsenic reduction is desired, along with a high quality water filtration. This unit works in situation where arsenic reduction is desired, along with a removal of hardness, scale, calcium and reduction of iron. This unit works in situation where a fluoride reduction is desired in a whole house or commercial application, along with a high quality water filtration. This unit works in situation where iron and hydrogen sulfide reduction is desired and water is hard. Great to reduce nitrates in whole house systems and for well water.

How To Make Well Water Drinkable and Keep It Safe To Drink The Berkey by theberkey.com

That is a good thing especially since people can save money out of it. Some of them are natural minerals like arsenic or other kinds of chemicals. It also includes the use of pesticide near the water source. Your bare eyes cannot see the harmful bacteria, parasites, and infections. Regardless of the possibility that you are not becoming ill, your well water may not be unsafe. They include surface and underground geology, depth, development of the well and more. You have to test your well water and keep all testing outcomes for future reference. It is vital to have your well water tested for pesticides, heavy metals, and inorganic mixes before utilizing it out of the blue. Contaminants known as nitrates are particularly unsafe for newborn children. One of the steps preserve well water from contamination is to keep a distance from the well. You can see it by standing at the well-head and looking, listening and smelling what is adjacent. Also, it is because it can also show the presence of other disease-causing bacteria and sewage. So when should you have your well tested for the presence of contaminants or other problems? But you have to make sure you have identified a potential problem since the testing will cost you money. The first thing that you should concern about is the local water contaminants. Microbes, for instance, are from the intestinal tracts of individuals and warm-blooded creatures. Groundwater serves as the gathering of rainwater, melted snow, and ice. You have to bear in mind that there is not a single treatment option that will be able to address all kinds of problems. Some people choose to treat their well water for it to have a better taste. However, unlike the reverse osmosis systems, the under sink water filters does not produce any waste water. When you install it, all of the cold water supply will focus through the filter. Instead, it delivers the water on the faucet that you are already using. Meanwhile, the conventional under sink water filter needs to divert the cold water via a connection. After filtering the water, it will be sent to another faucet which is mounted on the sink. The hot and cold water that reaches the faucet is unfiltered. Also, it can be easily installed on any types of a plumbing system. This is a type of water filter which is cheap and they offer good results. Though the countertop filter may seem simple, it actually employs a complex process. The water is being pushed through a filter with small pores. Through ion exchange resins, it can be able to remove the magnesium and calcium in the water. The final output is a water free from herbicides, pesticides, and disinfectants. It affects the family budget and causes good results in family health care. Since it protects the skin gently, it can also affect the fabric you wear. It will make the detergents effective and it will reduce the amount needed to clean a particular area inside the house. Those are one perceived to create the hardness of the water. The steam is then collected and then condensed on a separate container. This can be achieved through the use of small rocks, sand, charcoal, and cloth. Then, create a filter by filling the cone alternately with sand and small rocks. The use of chlorine drops or iodine tablets can effectively kill the bacteria in the well water. This is the process used by a lot of cities to clean their water supplies. As soon as the cell membrane is weakened, the chlorine can enter the cell. As such, it can offer a complete treatment as soon as the water enters the facility and leaves. It can remove most common contaminants from water better than any other gravity filters. Those that use carbon channels expel lead and some heavy metals. They no longer have to pay for water to drink, as long as the water from the well that they get is safe. So this means there is no guarantee that the water that you get from the private wells is safe. But, the sources of the drinking water can still get affected and contaminated by a lot of things. These minerals are responsible for the malfunction in the wastewater treatment system. In this way, you may know whether the drinking water is safe for you and your family. This is why water looks and tastes may not be safe to drink. It will guarantee that the treatment system is treating the water to a satisfying level. It includes the presence of coliform , nitrates , bacteria and other contaminants. The harmful contaminants in the water could lead to serious health issues. If you are an owner of a private well, then you can ask your local health department or with the professionals. They help you make sure that your well can still deliver water that is of good quality. This will enable well owners to choose the sort of tests required. The presence of these water quality indicators does not always mean that your well water will cause sickness. If you are suspecting your well may have other contaminants, then you have to make sure and get a test for that as well. Before getting your well tested, you can consult a local expert. It gathered in the modest pore spaces inside sediments and in the cracks inside bedrock. Another way is through contaminated runoff from forests, fields, and feedlots. Some like to take an extra precaution for the sake of the health of the people drinking from the well. A water filtration system could either use a chemical, a biological process or a physical barrier to filter your drinking water. If you choose this as a method to treat your well water, then you choose many kinds of water filtration systems. Some of the examples of a water filtration system are the under sink filtration system, a countertop water filter, faucet-attached water filter and a lot more. The contaminants removed through reverse osmosis technique are now blocked by the under sink water filters. The simple under sink water filters are called such because of its easy installation and not because of the system. This system does not need to have a new faucet to bring the water. Since the filter is connected to the line of the cold water, it cannot filter the hot water. Instead of installing two different cold water faucets, you can have a simplified system. Also, it is compact and will not take much space compared to other water filter system. Furthermore, it requires low maintenance and stress-free priming. Finally, the system will remove the organic contaminants through the activated carbon filtration. Meanwhile, this type of system can incorporate optional processes. As such, there will be an increase in the general cleanness. Also, the functionality of the soap will not be compromised. Usually, sodium or potassium ions replace the calcium and the magnesium ion in the water. This process will remove and then leave a lot of solid contaminants behind. However, boiling will not be able to remove the solids and other materials inside the well water. It usually uses a ceramic or carbon-based system to purify or clean the water. The most common chemical disinfectants are ozone, chlorine dioxide and of course, chlorine. It deactivates the microorganisms by destroying its cell membrane. Each point of chlorine can control different area of concern. Moreover, chlorine has many purposes apart from disinfection. Others, for example, reverse osmosis systems, strip out contaminants taken via carbon channels.

5 Things You Need To Know About Water Filters by consumerreports.org

Note that community water systems providing water to 100, 000 or more people must post the reports online. Some water filters have a light that tells you it’s time, and slower-than-usual filtering may also indicate it’s time to replace the filter. Among faucet mount, countertop and undersink models, the faucet mount filter flows the slowest. This water-quality report tells you about the water in your town and not necessarily what’s coming out of your own tap. Contaminants vary, depending on where you live and whether it’s rural or urban, pesticides or industrial chemicals, for example. Carafe and reverse-osmosis filters generally provide the slowest flow rates and are scored on their own scale. You’ll see flow-rate scores for each tested filter in our ratings.

Neglected Tropical Diseases by en.wikipedia.org

However, many of the same issues put populations at risk in developed as developing nations. Infection can result from eating infected food and coming into contact with contaminated bodily fluids. The symptoms can be confused with dengue and include fever, rash, joint pain, and swelling. Both versions involve an asymptomatic incubation period of several years. The current forms of treatment are highly toxic and ineffective as resistance is spreading. Furious (more common type) rabies causes hyperactivity, hydrophobia, aerophobia, and death by cardio-respiratory arrest occurs within days. It can be detected through tissue testing after symptoms develop. Symptoms for schistosomiasis are not caused by the worms but by the body’s reaction to the eggs. Children who are repeatedly infected can develop anemia, malnutrition and learning difficulties. Some pharmaceutical companies have committed to donating all the drug therapies required, and mass drug administration (for example mass deworming) has been successfully accomplished in several countries. In countries such as these, the burdens of neglected tropical diseases are often overshadowed by other public health issues. For example, other problems can stem from poverty which expose individuals to the vectors of these disease, such as lack of adequate housing. Chromoblastomycosis and other deep mycoses, scabies and other ectoparasites and snakebite envenoming were added to the list in 2017. They resulted in 142, 000 deaths in 2013—down from 204, 000 deaths in 1990. The protozoan can enter the body via the bug’s bite, skin breaks, or mucous membranes. They are acquired by eating food, such as raw fish, contaminated with the larval stages of the parasites. Up to 40 percent of infected individuals have kidney damage. Paralytic rabies causes a slow progression from paralysis to coma to death. Infection occurs when skin comes into contact with contaminated freshwater in which the snail that carry the parasite are living. The eggs that do not pass out of the body can become lodged in the intestine or bladder, causing inflammation or scarring.

Table Number Holders Stands and Menu Card Holders by webstaurantstore.com

With an extensive range of holders from buffet card holders to wedding table number holders, we’re sure to have just what you’re looking for! We even carry multiple material options, allowing you to find a number stand that matches your establishment’s decor and theme. If you’re wondering where to buy table card holders and number stands, we have a large selection of table card holders and number stands for sale at the lowest prices. To learn more about the differences between these products, explore the tabs above and the filters on the left side of the page.

Indoor Radon Gas Testing Mitigation and Removal From Homes by home-air-purifier-expert.com

Lowland coastal areas are often less rocky and with a deeper crustal layer of sand or silt separating houses from the underlying bedrock. It is colorless, odorless, and inhalation of it causes no emmediately identifiable symptoms. That means the total damage to your lungs from both air pollutants is much more than the sum of the damage that each would cause separately. You may be exposed to it in the environment by breathing, eating, or drinking substances containing the chemical or from skin contact with it. Radon is a naturally occurring colorless, odorless, tasteless radioactive gas that is formed from the normal radioactive decay of uranium. It slowly breaks down to other products such as radium, which breaks down to radon. Uranium, radium, and thus radon, will continue to exist indefinitely at about the same levels as they do now. This means that one-half of a given amount of radon will be changed or decayed to other products every 4 days. One part is called radiation, and the second part is called a daughter. Unlike radon gas, the daughters are metal and easily attach to dust and other particles in the air. During the decay process, alpha, beta, and gamma radiations are released. Beta particles can penetrate your skin, but they cannot go all the way through your body. Thus there are several types of decay products that result from radon gas decay. Since radon is a gas and radon daughters are often attached to dust, you are exposed to them primarily by breathing them in. Average levels of radon in groundwater are about 350 picocuries of radon per liter of water. In some areas of the country the amount of uranium and radium in some rock types, such as phosphate or granite, is high. It can be released into the air you breathe when water is used for showering and other household uses. However, some radon and most of the daughters remain in your lungs and undergo radioactive decay. Some of the radon that you swallow with drinking water passes through the walls of your stomach and intestine. When exposures are high, noncancer diseases of the lungs may occur, such as thickening of certain lung tissues. This is known from studies of workers exposed to radon in mines, primarily uranium miners, and from tests on laboratory animals. Therefore, harmful health effects of radon gas from external exposure (when the chemical does not come into direct contact with your body) are not likely to occur. Although there is some uncertainty as to how much exposure to radon increases your chances of getting lung cancer, the greater your exposure to radon, the greater your chance of developing lung cancer. However, several of its decay products can be detected in urine and in lung and bone tissue. These clinics specialize in recognizing, evaluating, and treating illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances. Using current technology, the risk of lung cancer due to indoor radon exposure can be decreased. Instead take a deep breath and marvel at the natural environment in which we all live. Radon has quickly advanced up the list of harmful indoor air pollutants because as our dwellings become more and more air tight for energy efficiency sake, the gas is trapped inside and can increase in concentration with time. These higher incidents seem to correlate with highly granitic soils, but not in all cases. Radon gas and its by-products escape from the soil and tend to accumulate in basement or crawlspace air. The smoke and radioactive gas decay energy and particles are also thought to have a synergistic effect for causing lung cancer. The only air purification devices that might absorb the gas would involve special activated carbon filters, which a few air purifiers contain. Likewise, the gas could not be captured practically given that it is difficult to clean all the air in a home consistently using home air purifiers. You can be exposed to a chemical only when you come into contact with the chemical. If you are exposed to a hazardous substance such as radon, several factors will determine whether harmful health effects will occur and what the type and severity of those health effects will be. Some of the radon moves to the soil surface and enters the air, while some remains below the soil surface arid and enters the groundwater (water that flows and collects underground). Radon gas also undergoes radioactive decay and has a radioactive half-life of about 4 days. The daughter, like radon, is not stable; and it also divides into radiation and another daughter. The dividing of daughters continues until a stable, nonradioactive daughter is formed. Alpha particles can travel only a short distance and cannot go through your skin. Gamma radiation, however, can go all the way through your body. A picocurie is a very small amount of radioactivity equal to one quintillionth (1/1018 ) of an ounce of radon. You may also be exposed to radon and daughters by drinking water obtained from wells that contain radon. However, most radon in water is rapidly released into the air and can be breathed in. Only about one to two percent of indoor radon in air comes from drinking water. If you’re on a public water supply and are concerned that radon may be entering your home through the water, call your public water supplier. Radon and its radioactive daughters can enter your body when you breathe them in or swallow them. The radiation released during this process passes into lung tissue and is the cause of lung damage. After radon enters your blood stream most (greater than 90%) of the radon goes to the lungs where you breathe most of it out. Long-term exposure to radon and radon daughters in air increases your chances of getting lung cancer. While noncancer health effects may occur within days or weeks after exposure to radon, it will be several years before cancer effects become apparent. Although radon is radioactive, it gives off little gamma radiation. In addition, it i s not known if radon causes health effects other than to the lung. In studies of uranium miners, workers exposed to radon levels of 50 to 150 picocuries of radon per liter of air for about 10 years have shown an increased frequency of lung cancer. Even small exposures may increase your risk of developing lung cancer, especially if you smoke cigarettes. Radon in human tissues is not detectable by routine medical testing. Radon might be second only to smoking as a cause of lung cancer, and the combination of smoking and radon exposure results in an especially serious health risk. Radon testing should be performed on all levels of the dwelling below the 3rd floor. In the past, it was not uncommon to use the tailings from these mines as fill on which to build homes, schools, and other structures.

The Headley Society by johnowensmith.co.uk

Amusingly, he told us, the re-enactment was not filmed until some three months later – and the celebrations shown on the screen rather exceeded those which had happened in real life. In fact they are not referred to as actors – they are always ‘interviewees’ – and they have no control over what appears in the final programme, or the sequence in which the episodes are shown. He also emphasised the fact that walking/rambling is a totally relaxing exercise, far removed from zig-zagging round a golf course carrying a load of golf clubs! He then explained the possible origin of several pieces which had been brought by members to show him. There was another cameo said to be made of volcanic lava from the 19th century, and an interesting gypsy ring thought to be about 1915. They dig their setts into the side of hills up to 5 or 6 feet deep, with entrances at least 10″ wide and 8″ high. They can be very destructive animals, but can be kept away with the use of electric fences where necessary. It was warm and cosy from the roaring log fire, ablaze with light from the candles, and redolent with the aroma of spices from the mulled wine, when over 60 people sat down to a delicious supper. Withers traced the evolution of radar and its application to industry, commerce and war. As the wood shavings were knee-high most of the time, they were very lucky there wasn’t a fire. The introduction of dust wrappers in 1832, originally for purely practical purposes, have now become more a work of art and integral to the value of a book. Members enjoyed looking at all the interesting buildings; from a pre-fab home to a chapel taking in a pavilion, various workshops and a shepherd’s hut on the way. Colin has been teaching about gemstones and buying around the world for the past 30 years. Colin explained that diamonds and semi-precious stones have been created over millions of years by volcanic activity. Whereas in other places in the world extraction is very labour intensive employing very low paid workers and sometimes children. In fact sapphires can range from clear through pink to deep red, when they are known as rubies. It all depends which description would give the best market price! The evening concluded with an opportunity to view an extensive collection of gemstones from around the world. At the end of the hall opposite the high table would have been the screen with two doors leading to the buttery and the pantry. All would have been timber framed, but later a brick face sometimes disguised this. Tree ring dating is used to determine the age of the timber. In other houses, old staircases were shown with different banisters and finials, also window fittings. Some old doors remained, some being the entrance to the screen passage. By 1066 skewers were in use and spit roasting was the means of cooking. By 1485 the kitchens had a roof and trivets were made which enabled cooking to be better regulated by sitting the pot higher off the flames of the fire. The turkey, sweet potatoes, artichokes, sugar cane all became popular. By the 18th century, women were working in the kitchens and serving food whereas previously it had been the preserve of men. Letter boxes have taken various forms to try to keep rain out, some also have spikes inside to deter robbers and others have bristles to prevent slugs & snails, which apparently like the glue on envelopes, and also to deter birds from nesting inside. There is also evidence of various types of farming over this extended period. These areas were suitable for cultivation whereas lower levels would have been heavily forested and impossible to clear with simple implements. At the social front, we organise speakers to come once a month, rain or snow — we listen and learn — the committee takes the opportunity to keep you up to date with some of the things which are going on in their world — and we look forward to tea and biscuits at the end, and having a good old natter to our friends before going home for another month. At the issues front, we keep our eye on such things as current planning matters, and we also try to play our role as a historical society. This year we published our 4th volume, and we’re now working on the fifth. Then the heavens opened – what a cruel twist of fate that, after all the wonderful weather over the past few weeks it should rain on this very special evening. There is no script, and the ‘actors’ are not paid for their work. And the publicity can also be used to good effect in the village: for example, to air particular issues such as planning proposals for housing, or to attract money for worthy causes. In relation to golf, and many other recreational pastimes, rambling is very inexpensive. Only the dominant boar and sow breed, with gestation taking anything from 2 to 10 months. This was a small complex instrument carried by aircraft, capable of detecting the tip of a submarine’s periscope in darkness. At that time there was no electricity and lighting was by paraffin lanterns. By this time electricity and machinery had taken over some of the work, but the finishing was, and still is, done by hand. She was presented with a bouquet and a garden token with warm thanks. These and her knowledge of the gardens made it a fascinating evening. There were many items to appreciate including old dolls, carpentry tools, lawn-mowers and many more fascinating articles. They are the result of crystals solidifying after extremely high temperatures and pressures have been acting on simple chemicals such as carbon for diamonds to exotic chemical combinations for sapphires. Naturally occurring gemstones, especially diamonds and sapphires, can have a wide range of colour tints depending upon where they come from in the world. This colour change depends on how much chromium is present in the crystal and the colour change can lead to confusion because one dealer may call a stone a pink sapphire while another might describe it as a pale ruby. Synthetic gemstones are popular for lower cost jewellery and a synthetic ruby can be grown in a couple of hours. He also talked about jade, coral, pearls, cultured pearls and freshwater pearls. There would have been a fire in the middle of the floor, with the smoke rising to the roof. Mullioned windows with diamond leading were used until the late 17th century. Food was prepared and cooked in a kitchen which was a building separate from the main house. Now herbs were being grown in the gardens and were used both for cooking and medicinal purposes. Amongst other items, pigeon and carp stews, white bread and marchpane (the forerunner of today’s marzipan) were eaten. It is thought that the very earliest example of growing crops arose because there would have been numerous small clearings amongst the scrub, due to the height of the hill. These are events at which we can get together and enjoy ourselves, and we’ll hope to do more of this kind of thing in future years. These have given us a vehicle to publish short articles on the history of the parish which would otherwise have gone in somebody’s drawer, or worse still their dustbin, and never seen the light of day.

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