Kitchen Countertop Options: Quartz That Look Like Marble

Specifically, quartz that look like marble – that gorgeous gray and white carrara marble. Depending on your budget, needs of your household, and your style preference, your choice here is going to vary. After considering all of that, the choice to go with a quartz was pretty clear. No having to seal it annually like granite, or worry about spills and staining like a marble.
How Could Anyone Do This??|| Vlogmas Day 15 | Duration 7 Minutes 55 Seconds Once you get into the world of quartz manufacturers, there are tons of choices. There is nothing better than seeing something in your own space – way different than in a showroom under fluorescent lighting. I have included bigger screenshots of each countertop option below, although seeing it on the computer definitely isn’t quite the same as going and grabbing an actual sample piece. They all had a fair bit of white in them, and didn’t have the flecks or speckled look that you often find in quartz. And of course, it was the one that was by far the most expensive. You can check out the whole kitchen before & after reveal for waaaayy more photos! I know this is an older post but it’s my inspiration for our renovation. All the reasons you gave for not going with granite or marble were ours also. I asked where we could go to see some slabs and saw his pick first thing. The elimination process was hard, but we narrowed it down to 2, with price finally being the deciding factor. During our own kitchen renovation, choosing the countertops was just about the hardest decision. I don’t think there are any “bad” choices – just different options to suit different needs. I like the veining that you find in stone, but didn’t want it to be overly busy. We wanted something that would stand up to kids in the kitchen and would be as maintenance free as possible. It is an engineered stone, so you can get that look of veining as you would in a natural stone, but it is super durable and maintenance free. Maybe too many, as it makes the decision process hard!

Do You Have A Silly Job Title? | Duration 4 Minutes 52 Seconds All of these manufacturers are reputable, so price would definitely help us narrow it down. It’s such a major decision that seeing it on a small scale and on the computer wasn’t enough. The counters are bright and read like a nice white from a distance. Oh, and the seams (we have 3 in our corners) are barely noticeable. Such a pretty shade of blue and the gold hardware ads a nice contrast! Your advice to go see the selection in person is so right on.

7 Little Known Benefits Of Quartzite Countertops by

Here’s everything you need to know to make an informed decision before you buy. Both are formed deep within the earth from heat and pressure, so both stones are hard and sturdy. It’s harder than all the other popular stones used in countertops. Many people love the look because some types can look very much like marble. Another difference between the two stones is the fact that most quartzite is denser and less porous than granite. Most retailers will suggest that you seal it just in case because it’s better safe than sorry when dealing with and natural kitchen work surfaces. Here’s a good example of how a slab can naturally take on shades of brown. Quartzite is harder than glass so if you rub your tile on the edge of the slab you should be able to scratch the glass. Most stone yards will be happy to give you a small sample to take home. They may sound a lot alike, but the tru th is that they are very different materials altogether. Quartz contains pieces of ground quartz combined with resin and polymers to create a man-made material that’s pretty and strong. Quartz is more flexible, so it does tend to chip less than the natural stone. Quartzite countertops are less porous than some other stones, but it may still require a sealant to prevent stains. It’s more expensive wood or plastic laminate countertops, but it can be less expensive than most marble. Also, the thicker the slab, the higher the price, and you may see higher prices with special fabrication demands or ornate edges. As long as the supply continues to keep up with the demand, the prices will stay the same. Because quartzite is a natural stone, the actual look of your finished countertops can vary greatly, but you’ll have a better idea of what to expect if you can see the actual stone that will be used. Every little bit helps, and it pays to go local when doing any renovation work, and that includes having new kitchen countertops installed.

Never Take Kids To The Store | Duration 5 Minutes 55 Seconds Be sure to do a scratch test (and a lemon juice/etching test, if possible) to make sure you’re getting the real deal (and not a dolomite marble). As a rule, you should probably seal it simply because it is a natural stone and it is porous. Regular, daily care of your quartzite counters should include cleaning up spills immediately (even sealed countertops can stain if the sealant has worn thin). Although it’s super hard to scratch, you should avoid using abrasive cleaners because they could strip them of any sealant you use. You should be safe from the occasional dropped pan or knife slip, and of course they’re heat resistant, so you can set those hot pans right on the countertop and you won’t have to worry about damaging them. However, that doesn’t mean there aren’t a lot of really pretty color choices to choose from. Aside from the greys and browns, you can also find hues of green, blue, and even red. Nature’s paintbrush can make slabs that are stunning and vivid in color. Amanzonite quartzite is a blend of soft greens and whites, and there are even shades of pink for fans of the color. Look at the benefits like super durable surface for your hardworking kitchen, a great selection of color choices, and the fact that it’s the hardest material you can get. If you go heavy on the soap and don’t rinse it, expect to put in some elbow work once the soap residue begins to build up. The longer a spill sits on the top, the greater the likelihood of staining. You should definitely take the time to find out all you can about this great material, but luckily you won’t have to look too far. The two are both natural stones, both are hard, and both are very beautiful, but you have to look a little deeper to see if one is a better fit for you than the other. The differences between the two are what makes quartzite countertops stand out. Granite tends to have darker flecks in it (an effect of it being formed from molten lava), while quartzite usually has little or no dark spots. Both are naturally porous to some extent, although you can find quartzite that may require little or no sealing at all. Some look so much like marble, it’s hard to tell the difference. The white stone has grey veins that really resemble marble, but the tough stone is far more durable than its marble counterpart. It’s a popular alternative for anyone who wants a lighter stone in their kitchen, but who wants less worry, especially if the kitchen sees a lot of use. It’s got the character of the marble, but without its’ drawbacks. You can test the hardness of the stone by bringing a glass tile to the stone yard with you.

Making This Part For The Wintergatan Marble Machine X | Duration 10 Minutes 24 Seconds Another thing you can do it test a sample to see if it will etch. Quartzite is a natural metamorphic stone formed when sand is heated and compressed within the earth. However, it is not as heat or scratch resistant, and this makes a big difference in how the material performs in the kitchen. Because quartz is compl etely non-porous, it is less prone to stains and bacterial growth. This gives quartz a slight edge where maintenance is concerned, but if you are very rough on your countertops, quartzite is probably going to be a better choice for you. When comparing the price to either granite or quartz, you’ll find they fall in a similar range. I have a buying guide here for you that that will help you get the lowest price possible on your new counters. Quartzites that look like marble (but with none of the scratching and etching problems) can fetch higher prices because of demand. You’ll need to find a reputable stone retailer, preferably one that shows you the actual slab of stone that will be used in your countertops. Another reason to use a local stone retailer, besides being able to see the product in person before you buy it, is the fact that you’ll save a little money by using someone close to you. If you can, visit multiple stone yards before you choose your quartzite. Different types do have varying degrees of porousness, so some will require a little more care and attention. That being said, you may only have to seal your countertops once per year if the slab you choose is dense and less porous. Also, abrasive cleaners can make the surface appear less polished. Because of the way the stone is formed–from sand that is heated to form a solid slab–the base color of quartzite is typically white or cream, though it can also look more beige. These colors are imparted from the minerals in the earth where the stone is formed. If you’re looking at quartzite for your kitchen countertops, look at more than just the price.

Do It Yourself Kitchen Makeovers Kitchen Plans | Duration 3 Minutes 19 Seconds It’s not perfect, but it’s a great stone for kitchens that get a lot of use and it will look great for years to come. It will look and feel oily/greasy if you’ve used too much soap. If you use this around countertop appliances frequently and then move the appliances you’ll see a light spot where the appliance sat.

6 Differences Between Old and New Marbles by

Here are six differences as well as a few tips to help people get a marble collection started. Meanwhile, other civilizations focused their use of marbles on recreation. It wasn’t until the late 1800s, however, that marbles were manufactured in high quantities. Marbles are much less common to play with today, but they are nevertheless a popular collector’s item. However, there are a few details that collectors should consider before making a purchase to ensure that marbles are as old as people say that they are. Keep in mind that some handmade marbles are new, and some old marbles were machine made. Certain patterns originated in different countries and were popular at different time periods. This was during the 19th and early 20th century when marbles were only collected for the purpose of playing the game, not solely for the sake of collection. Most people do not discover this because playing marbles is more rare than simply collecting them. While no one wants an antique marble that has been destroyed, no one wants a so-called antique that looks perfect either. Antique marbles were almost always created through glassblowing, so there are certain characteristics to look for; the pontil is the most obvious, but there are others. These flaws actually add character and value to a marble because they prove that the marble was handmade. Unless an elderly person set up a yard sale just to fool young marble collectors, which is a very unlikely scenario, it’s safe to assume that the elderly person’s marbles are old as well. When such people got older, they almost always put their marbles in a bag or box somewhere, never to be opened again. When in doubt, ask sellers when they purchased their marbles. This may explain why some older marbles look perfect and have no pontil.

Biomanufacturing Gti | Duration 3 Minutes 37 Seconds If someone is trying to sell a new handmade marble for a low price, notice the red flag and avoid that seller. Although so many civilizations played marbles, the rules of the game were apparently passed down through oral tradition. At their peak in the early 1900s, each marble company produced about a million marbles per day. Most old marbles were handmade, but this is not in itself a perfect criterion. No matter how skilled a glassblower was, there was always a pontil on the finished product. This is simply a good way to find the most probable possibility. They were also crafted individually, so more care and attention was given to each one. While this principle does not guarantee anything, it is one more way to figure out whether a marble is more likely to be old or new. This can make it a little easier to determine the origin of a given marble. Old marbles were made of high-quality glass that did not shatter easily. Thus, they needed to be resistant to shattering; newer ones are made much more cheaply and shatter more easily as well. If an antique looks perfect, it probably isn’t an antique at all. Since glassblowing is not as precise as a machine, older marbles are likely to have bubbles and odd flaws. A marble that looks like it just came off of an assembly line is most likely a new creation. Although this is common sense, many people forget to do a little mental math when purchasing marbles. Most people of past generations collected marbles in their youth so that they could play games. Older people who sell the marbles of their youth are selling marbles that are also old, marbles that are likely to be in good condition since they’ve been tucked away for decades. In addition, some marbles were blown by hand but perfected with a machine. When assessing the age of a marble, odd contradictions may lead to the transitional period. Such marbles are rare and are seen as fascinating works of art. Marble shows are also a great way to meet people who are open to selling and purchasing marbles.

Live In Maid Vs Live Out Housekeeper by

There are many situations where having a live-in maid is very convenient and worthwhile. A live-in maid can reduce the stress on the family and be very valuable. Pay should be adjusted for additional services that require more time and skill. Live-in housekeepers can do anything live-out housekeepers can, often at a lower price(since the family will be providing room and board). Families are looking for an organized and responsible person yet someone who will become a vital part of your family. Write out a list of personal attributes that you want in a live-in maid so that you have a standard to use when interviewing. It is especially crucial for live-in housekeepers to be safe and respectful employees! Combined roles such as housekeeper nanny and housekeeper cook are also possible, but in all guises, the housekeeper uses a hands-on approach to provide essential domestic assistance for the entire household. There are many benefits and drawbacks and families should deliberate carefully to ensure that they are making the right choice. Maybe an elderly parent has come to live with you, or a health situation is requiring extra care. Families should discuss which services will be done by the live-in maid. If you have children or elderly relatives living with you it is important that the housekeeper is able to live comfortably with them as well. Live-in maids can be very valuable for some but are definitely not a good fit for every family.

What Is A Lithograph? With Pictures by

The printing process for creating lithographs is different from other traditional methods, mainly because it does not require the print-maker to first etch the image into metal p lates. Instead, an artist uses a set of greasy crayons or pencils to draw a mirrored image of the artwork, usually onto a smooth stone tablet or metal plate. If the final image has multiple colors, it may be necessary to make separate stones or plates for each. To make a hand lithograph, the drawing is first treated with a chemical to set the image. Water is then wiped onto the unpainted areas to discourage the ink from smearing. The inked stone or plate and the paper are placed in a press and light pressure is used to transfer some of the ink. The same paper would be placed precisely over the inked plates, eventually creating a detailed image. After the artwork is created, a photographic negative is made and transferred to a printing plate; a “blanket” made of rubber is then created from the plate, and this is what is used to print the final product. There are other ways of duplicating original artwork for the commercial market, so it should not generally be assumed that a print in an art store is indeed a lithograph. Both are of a girl holding a small dog, and a top hat is at the bottom of the pic. I just retired and would like to sell them as a set or by the piece. It is three men dressed in ballet/dance clothes, one is seated on a bench two are standing. Any advice on the name of the work and if it is a print or what? They will look at it with a strong magnifying glass to inspect the ink deposited on the paper. If the particles are more organic looking, a little uneven in shape and dispersal, suggesting the drawing material sitting on a smooth stone surface, it is likely a lithograph. On the back it declares the name of the portrait and the artist. On the lower left side there are also numbers 99, 134, 07, 00. Would be interested in anything anyone can tell me about it. Prints can be made of original works of art, first created on the stone table or metal plate, or images from paintings or drawings can be duplicated with this method. While this can take less time than etching the image into metal, it is still the most time-consuming part of lithography. Lithography hinges on the principle that oil and water cannot mix; based on this principle, an oil-based variety of ink is applied directly to the drawing, and the ink immediately bonds with the equally greasy crayon lines. This means that the lithograph was the 12th one produced in a series limited to 300 prints. This method is well suited for high-volume printing work, and typically involves plates made of aluminum or mylar rather than stone. A silkscreen or serigraph is a hand-stencil method that uses a fabric screen for printing; this type of printing can be relatively fast, and many colors can be used. If the ink particles are quite uniformly dispersed in perfect little tiny circles, it is likely a computer print out. A litho(stone)graph(writing) is a hands-on way of producing an art piece.

How To Play Marbles! Anyone Can Do It! by

The single most important thing you need to know is this – have fun! It is important to agree on the rules when you play marbles, so nobody accuses you of cheating. Playing keepsies is fun until you loose your favorite marble! Friendlies – you get all of your marbles back at the end of the game. If you are willing to risk your marbles in a game of keepsies, you had better either be a good shooter, or be a good sport. Pinch the marble in your index finger and the flick if with your thumb. In other marbles games, you might want to just roll it on the ground, or drop it like a bomb between your thumb and finger. You might have some ordinary marbles, but if you watch you can collect some really cool ones. Building a collection of marbles is fun because you can remember things about the marbles and imagine them in the game. If you are playing in the dirt, you can just draw a line with a stick. This is a good game for outdoors fun because you can put marbles in a circle in the dirt and try to knock them out by dropping or tossing the shooters. Then they draw a taw line about ten feet away and stand behind it. The vocabulary of marble playing is different in different regions and times. To become an expert requires rigorous practice, hours of patience, and dirty knees. You will find those words in use throughout this web site. If you want to “play for keeps”, then you should talk about it at first and agree that the winner gets to keep some marbles. Any kid who ever had a collection of marbles has favorite marbles. One of the funnest things about marbles is looking through your marbles collection. Playing on a rough surface like a baseball infield will make the marble bounce off course. Where ever you play, keep track of your marbles and have fun! They are hard to find because you usually needed to know a truck mechanic to take one from the wheel of a truck for you. The player who’s marble is closest to the line without going over is the winner and collects all of the opponents’ marbles. There is a complex and enormous set of jargon that have used by kids for playing marbles. Kids who play marbles learn and share many of these special words.

LandOfMarbles : Some Of Our Collection by

Next is a double-twist green and yellow, then black and green, an opaque yellow and transparent orange corkscrew. It is an opaque black base with a wide opaque yellow corkscrew. The marbles is transparent clear, and the white, red and green corkscrews lie on the surface only. The black white and grey at far left is largest at 27/32″ (and it is fluorescent!) the blue and brown at far right is the smallest at 3/4″. These are almost always in a transparent green base, but we have also seen them in clear and transparent blue. These usually have a patch of blood, and a patch of green or blue opposite it. The last is a “fat-core” five vane green cat’s-eye in transparent clear base glass. Check your green cat’s-eyes, aventurine cat’s are kind of common, but neat. This one is a hybrid, with aventurine green edged in a golden yellow. There is some black aventurine on the yellow corkscrew, which makes it a very rare marble. Then a double-twist blue and red, a double twist black and orange, and a double-twist blue and orange. These are all tri-colors, although some are blended, giving the appearance of more colors. A semi-opaque red corkscrew lies on top of the yellow corkscrew, splitting it in two and adding eye appeal. These color combinations are pretty common, except for yellow/purple. Oxbloods” have the translucent white base without the opaque white swirls. The yellow and purple flame is especially tough to find! There has been some confusion over the difference between “hybrid” and “blended”. Kings are usually white inside, with the colors veneered on the surface. It is about 50:50 oxblood/transparent clear with wisps of opaque white. The vanes are opaque blue, a little hard to catch with the scanner, but very pretty. One of the five vanes is enveloped in transparent blue glass.

No “Snobby” Carrara Marble For My Kitchen… by

I think you’ll recognize that amazingly pretty house! I would like to paint out our oak cabinets for white to match the tiles but haven’t as yet worked up the nerve. I think the stone guys called our finish “leather” or “sueded”. Soapstone is probably the most durable surface you can have in your kitchen; it’s what chemistry lab tables are made of! My only complaint is that they’re dark and you can’t always see when something’s spilled on them. Honestly, this must have been the schnazziest 1950’s ranch in the area when it was built. Looked into granite and frankly, didn’t like all of the black that were so popular. Marble is a distinctive look, and needs a certain level of sophistication in appliances, cabinets & finishes, etc. When my kitchen grows up it’ll get butcher block counters, at least 2″ thick. We have sad laminate counters in a nice shade of “dingy cream.” and heaven forbid a drop of coffee or red wine comes near it! Kitchen counters will be nice but you can’t get as cozy on them as you will in your sunroom. We’ve been saying that for a few years now so who knows when that will happen…if ever! I think it’s because the grey colors in it, it’s boring! If your husband is handy and anything happens to the counter you can sand, stain, refinish-try that with marble. Very welcoming and makes u want to lay down a sleeping bag so u never really have to leave! Our kitchen is a workplace and we’re hard on it – we just needed that durability. In the end…you have to do what works for you… whether it’s your budget or what you can life with or without! I actually like the color of it–if there was a way to get the shine back it would look better. When we first moved into our house in the 1970’s, the kitchen counters were a hideous laminate material. After all these years they are still on the counters and will probably not be changed for anything else. It will be a lighter gray and the veining will be less obvious but the stone itself will be fine. Between the marble and the uber-pink bathroom the original owners were oh so stylish! After you wash your hands, be sure and dry up all the water off the marble. So nice to hear someone with such great taste also be realistic when it comes to decorating! The only traditional cabinets are a sink cabinet with a laminate countertop (the horror… teehee!) and a wall cabinet that holds my vintage diner china. If you collect enough stuff, eventually stuff starts to fit together. I just can’t bring myself to like granite, since everyone and their proverbial dog does it. We were able to plan for a lot of counter space in our 2007 kitchen remodel, and the trade off was in the type of counter top material. It’s got a mottled appearance, which camouflages the dust a bit, and it’s very hard-wearing, yet soft (resilient?). For us, laminate is perfect: hard-wearing, affordable and appropriate for the neighborhood. The wood has a nice warm glow to it, and our kitchen feels so inviting and, well, warm. And if it gets scratched or burned, you can always sand it, and oil it. We went with granite in our kitchen simply because of its durability and resale value. Stone (whether granite or marble) will always retain its value.

Names Of Different Types Of Marbles by

We do not want to wait a thousand or maybe a million years for her to get our marbles ready. In place of frost man uses a hammer to break the stone into fragments. These are placed a large millstone one hundred or two hundred at a time. Over this a block of oak of the same size as the lower stone rests on the small square fragments and is kept turning while water flows upon the bottom stone. In fifteen minutes’ time the mill does what nature takes years to accomplish, and the little blocks of stone are turned into small stone balls. One such mill can turn out two thousand marbles a week, and if there are four or five sets of millstones running, eight thousand or ten thousand a week can be manufactured. When they are smooth enough the dust made by the last process is emptied from the casks and fine emery powder substituted. They are all very beautiful, but their beauty is only skin deep, and when used much they become dull and fall of nicks. Glass marbles are made by melting the glass and pressing the hot substance in polished metal molds, the halves of which fit so neatly that no trace of a seam or line is visible on the glass to mark where the parts of the mold join. Agates are beautiful gems of agate or carnelian, varying in color from a smoky gray to a blood red, or variegated with mottlings or stripes of different colors. Our fingers might be too old to shoot with them, so we adopt nature’s principles, but make more haste. The hammer breaks the bard stone into small squares, or, more properly, cubical shaped blocks. In another part of the establishment the waterwheel turns a number of wooden barrel-shaped receptacles, something like the copper ones used for making candy in this country. These revolving cylinders smooth the marbles, which are compelled by the motion of the machinery to keep up a constant rubbing against each other and against the stone cylinder. Both of the latter marbles are decorated with lines of various colors, sometimes crossing each other, forming plaids, and again arranged in circles and called bull’s eyes.

Savor The Days: What To Do When Your Child Swallows A Marble {Aka Poop Watch by

The most popular foreign object for children to swallow are coins. Some items that a child might swallow may need medical attention based on the nature of the object. What about the foreign object getting stuck in there somewhere? It couldn’t hurt to talk to your pediatrician’s office just to see if they might have any other suggestions. They are telling me if she doesn’t pass it, she will have surgery. I remember my younger brother swallowing an actual marble at about the same age, and he had no issues. Maybe just give the doctor’s office a call and update them on how she is doing and see what they say. We are worried but your post sort of taken some of the worry away. She is drinking fine and wetting diapers so fluid is going through. I told him he would have to poop it out, so now he is now on the potty. I did not recall my children swallowing items (they may have) but my daughter did get a ping pong ball stuck in her mouth. My husband walked up and squeezed her cheeks and it popped out! I finally was able to breathe a sigh of relief after being on poop watch for 4 days! I let him drink 2 oz vegetable oil and then a banana, works immediately. She’s my middle child and the only one that has swallowed something like this. Now i am relieved because my 5 year old daughter swallowed a marble too. He was lying down and must have been playing with his marble gem when he accidentally swallowed it. Now its my time to watch his poop for the marble gem, he was actually trying to poop now. He was coughing like crazy at first, but it seems to have gone properly down now. Little kids learn about their environment by using their sense of touch with their fingers but also by putting things in their mouths. Most small objects will pass on through their esophagus, stomach and intestine and come out in their poop. Rachel swallowed was smooth glass so there aren’t any sharp edges and the glass will not be hazardous to her body. Rachel swallowed was actually a florist glass bead that they use to fill the bottom of a vase to make it look prettier. I suggested she come lie on the couch with her pillow and blanket to watch some cartoons. We have had an x-ray and it shows it is still there. My 6 year old son swallowed exactly the same thing – a decorative glass “marble” like the ones florists use. I checked my son over carefully, he’s breathing fine, drank some water without any difficulty, and now he’s sound asleep. How long did it take your son the pass the glass decorative glass bead/marble? Wednesday afternoon and she has not had a bowel movement since and she keeps having bouts of gagging. The doctor said that feeling was probably the physical trauma feeling from swallowing the marble. I immediately asked him to drink water, no difficulty swallowing.

Construction Laborers and Helpers : Occupational Outlook Handbook: : U.S. Bureau Of Labor Statistic s by

Construction laborers have one of the highest rates of injuries and illnesses of all occupations. Construction laborers and helpers perform many tasks that require physical labor on construction sites. Construction laborers , also referred to as construction craft laborers , perform a wide variety of construction-related activities during all phases of construction. They may learn to use lasers to place pipes and to use computers to control robotic pipe cutters. Helpers assist construction craftworkers, such as electricians and carpenters, with a variety of tasks. For example, many helpers work with cement masons to move and set the forms that determine the shape of poured concrete. Many construction trades have helpers who assist craftworkers. Some work at great heights or outdoors in all weather conditions; others may be required to work in tunnels. Some jobs expose workers to harmful materials, fumes, or odors, or to dangerous machinery. Although they face similar hazards to construction laborers, some construction helpers experience a rate of injuries and illnesses that is closer to the national average. Certification can help workers prove that they have the knowledge to perform more complex tasks. For example, experience as an electrician’s helper may lead someone to becoming an apprentice electrician. Construction laborers and helpers may need to be able to distinguish colors to do their job. Highway laborers, for example, spend hours on their feet—often in hot temperatures—with few breaks. Construction laborers and helpers must often lift heavy materials or equipment. Apprentices receive pay increases as they learn more skills. Although they sometimes stop work because of bad weather, they may work overtime to meet deadlines. Laborers work in all fields of construction, and demand for laborers should mirror the level of overall construction activity. Employment of construction laborers and helpers is especially sensitive to the fluctuations of the economy. On the other hand, during peak periods of building activity some areas may require additional number of these workers. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties. It may also discuss the major industries that employed the occupation. Some work at great heights or outdoors in all weather conditions. Laborers and helpers work in all fields of construction, and demand for these workers should mirror the level of overall construction activity. Many laborers spend their time preparing and cleaning up construction sites, using tools such as shovels and brooms. With special training, laborers may help transport and use explosives or run hydraulic boring machines to dig out tunnels. They may become certified to remove asbestos, lead, or chemicals. They may carry tools and materials or help set up equipment. Many other helpers assist with taking apart equipment, cleaning up sites, and disposing of waste, as well as helping with any other needs of craftworkers. They must use earplugs around loud equipment and wear gloves, safety glasses, and other protective gear. Workers may experience cuts from materials and tools, fatal and nonfatal falls from ladders and scaffolding, and burns from chemicals or equipment. Workers may also experience muscle fatigue and injuries related to lifting and carrying heavy materials. In some parts of the country, construction laborers and helpers may work only during certain seasons. About 1 in 4 construction laborers were self-employed in 2016. High school classes in mathematics, blueprint reading, welding, and other vocational subjects can be helpful. Workers usually learn by performing tasks under the guidance of experienced workers. Rigging and scaffold building are commonly attained certifications. Similarly, helpers sometimes move into construction craft occupations after gaining experience in the field. For example, an electrician’s helper must be able to distinguish different colors of wire to help the lead electrician. Construction laborers and some helpers need to perform basic math calculations while measuring on jobsites or assisting a surveying crew. Construction laborers are frequently required to operate and maintain equipment, such as jackhammers. Construction laborers and helpers must have the endurance to perform strenuous tasks throughout the day. For example, cement mason helpers must move cinder blocks, which typically weigh more than 40 pounds each. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Like many construction workers, most construction laborers and helpers work full time. Laborers and helpers on highway and bridge projects may need to work overnight to avoid causing major traffic disruptions. For example, in northern climates, cold weather frequently disrupts construction activity in the winter. Employment of construction laborers is projected to grow 12 percent from 2016 to 2026, faster than the average for all occupations. On the one hand, workers in these trades may experience periods of unemployment when the overall level of construction falls. They also neutralize and clean up materials that are flammable, corrosive, or toxic. Some operators move construction materials around building sites or excavate earth from a mine. This tab may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment that is used, and the risk of injury that workers may face.

Marble by

They are traversed by minute cracks that accord with the rhombohedral cleavage (planes of fracture that intersect to yield rhombic forms) of calcite. In some cases the original bedding of the calcareous sediments can be detected by mineral banding in the marble. Black and gray colours result from the presence of fine scales of graphite. Later physical deformation and chemical decomposition of the metamorphic marbles often produces attractive coloured and variegated varieties. Earth movements may shatter the rocks, producing fissures that are afterward filled with veins of calcite; in this way the beautiful brecciated, or veined, marbles are produced. The so-called onyx marbles consist of concentric zones of calcite or aragonite deposited from cold-water solutions in caves and crevices and around the exits of springs. These marbles are usually brown or yellow because of the presence of iron oxide. Resistance to abrasion, which is a function of cohesion between grains as well as the hardness of the component minerals, is important for floor and stair treads. Brecciated, coloured marbles, onyx marble, and verd antique are used principally for interior decoration and for novelties. For endurance in exterior use, marble should be uniform and nonporous to prevent the entrance of water that might discolour the stone or cause disintegration by freezing. Calcite marbles that are exposed to atmospheric moisture made acid by its contained carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and other gases maintain a relatively smooth surface during weathering; but dolomite limestone may weather with an irregular, sandy surface from which the dolomite crystals stand out. Wherever possible, advantage is taken of natural joints already present in the rock, and cuts are made in the direction of easiest splitting, which is a consequence of the parallel elongation of platy or fibrous minerals. Mill sawing into slabs is done with sets of parallel iron blades that move back and forth and are fed by sand and water. Even with the most careful quarrying and manufacturing methods, at least half of the total output of marble is waste. In various localities it is put to most of the major uses for which high-calcium limestone is suitable. It was set in cement and applied in slabs to brick and concrete walls. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we’ll add it to the article. Commercially, it includes all decorative calcium-rich rocks that can be polished, as well as certain serpentines (verd antiques). Petrographically marbles are massive rather than thin-layered and consist of a mosaic of calcite grains that rarely show any traces of crystalline form under the microscope. In the more severely deformed rocks, the grains show stripes and may be elongated in a particular direction or even crushed. Many marbles contain other minerals that are usually silicates of lime or magnesia. These minerals represent impurities in the original limestone, which reacted during metamorphism to form new compounds. Bands of calc-silicate rock may alternate with bands of marble or form nodules and patches, sometimes producing interesting decorative effects, but these rocks are particularly difficult to finish because of the great difference in hardness between the silicates and carbonate minerals. Sometimes the broken fragments are rolled and rounded by the flow of marble under pressure. They are, in the strict sense, neither marble nor onyx, for true onyx is a banded chalcedony composed largely of silicon dioxide. Unmetamorphosed limestones showing interesting colour contrasts or fossil remains are used extensively for architectural purposes. The main result of metamorphism is an increase in grain size. Statuary marble, the most valuable variety, must be pure white and of uniform grain size. It also should be free from impurities such as pyrite that might lead to staining or weathering. Bending of marble slabs has been attributed to the directional thermal expansion of calcite crystals on heating. Instead, channeling machines that utilize chisel-edged steel bars make cuts about 5 cm (2 inches) wide and a few metres deep. The marble blocks outlined by joints and cuts are separated by driving wedges into drill holes. The marble may be machined with lathes and carborundum wheels and is then polished with increasingly finer grades of abrasive. Some of this material is made into chips for terrazzo flooring and stucco wall finish. It was used for pavements either in slabs cut and arranged in patterns or as mosaic. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources.

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Among most collectors, glass marbles are by far the most popular. The size of a marble depended on the type of game for which it was used; certainly, no one would ever have attempted to “knuckle down” with a 2 1/2″ sphere! These names often have venerable origins and originally referred to the material of the marble, though later was used to refer to glass marbles, which often tried to mimic the appearance of their predecessors. These terms were later adopted by not only children playing with glass marbles, but also some of the companies manufacturing the marbles. They created many of the stone and clay marbles of the 1800s and before, and were also the ones who invented the cane cut glass marble. Besides a couple hundred individual craftsmen (and craftswomen) currently making glas s and ceramic marbles for collectors, there are few companies that actually still make marbles for use in games. Who collects marbles, and why do they collect marbles? However, more and more people seem to be collecting due to the beauty many marbles possess. While men generally appear to be interested more in older marbles, women often lean toward contemporary art glass marbles. These collectors will be doctors, lawyers, and scientists, and just as many will be “blue collar” types. I have met collectors as young as nine and as old as eighty; the ability to enjoy the inherent beauty of a colorful glass orb does not seem affected by one’s age. A few, however, are fortunate enough to have a lot of “disposable” cash and initiate their collecting with high dollar purchases. Such beginning collections usually consist of more common marbles, often purchased for a dollar or less. The average collector begins with mostly machine made marbles, since for the most part hand made marbles are more expensive. As with anything, only pay what you personally think a marble is worth. Use the price guides to some extent, but also do comparative shopping. It has been my experience that these dollar marbles are almost always worth but a few pennies each, since invariably someone has been there before you to pick out the good ones. Once you are more experienced, don’t be afraid to pay more; by this time you’ll know enough about rarity, condition, and current market values to make a wiser decision. Nothing compares to the excitement a collector will feel upon attending his or her first marble show. No matter how small or large, if you can get to a show, do it! These services often offer some of the higher priced marbles so keep this in mind; most new collectors are not yet able to purchase such rare items, though the catalogs themselves are full of beautiful photographs and can serve as great guides for identification and pricing. It does, in fact, offer more benefits in many ways than even a live show. Still, it’s that one shot in every score or so where you’ll walk away a winner. Some distribute business cards that state their desire to buy marbles anywhere they are able to leave these cards. Clever individuals need only to use their imaginations to think up other ways of building a marble collection! Subtle differences between two marbles that are essentially identical can separate the two by hundreds of dollars. In fact, a lot of people do collect with no intention of ever selling, no matter what they are offered. However, this can be difficult and you have to have your finger on the pulse of the market, so to speak. Marble prices are always fluctuating up and down but like stocks and bonds, the prices have a general upward trend. And the prices are usually based on their own selling experiences. So use them as the “guides” they are, and not as something written in stone. The general rule in this case, which holds true for just about any type of collectible, is that a dealer will offer you about half of what he expects to eventually make. There are two basic systems, both of which call upon the same general criteria. Some people hold the marble anywhere from six inches to a foot or more from the naked eye and judge based on their ability to detect damage from this distance. Again, while better than the first method, it is weakened by subjectivity. Mint is the easiest, since such a marble has no visible damage. Good (-) marbles are at the very fringe of what is worth keeping and what you want to toss. On transparent marbles, the wear, haze, and frostiness on the remaining surface may be so bad you cannot see what is inside the marble. Mint (-) marbles will have no missing glass, with the exception perhaps of some microscopic pinpricks. Good marbles will have substantial damage, some of it deep enough so that polishing may not remove it all. Mor e than 50% of the surface has damage, including substantial chips, and you would probably not want to collect such a marble unless it were extremely rare or if you planned on having it reconditioned. Games involving “marbles” could be almost as old as civilization itself. American inventors of the early 20th century perfected the use of machinery to create marbles. Throughout the years, marble players have applied particular names to marbles. For instance, “allies” first denoted alabaster marbles, while “aggies” referred to agates. Many people collect marbles, and many of them do so out of a sense of nostalgia, to revive memories of a more innocent period in their lives. Attending a marble show, one will see both men and women, and even some younger people. Most collectors, particularly those with modest income levels, begin small and work their way up. The average beginner will start out by rummaging around for marbles at flea markets, garage sales, antique malls, and the like. Later, these marbles are typically weeded out as the collector gains experience, has a few more dollars to spend, and learns to differentiate between the manufacturers and the styles of marbles. Certainly, don’t go off half-cocked and spend ample sums on marbles you later find are worth much less. Still, a dollar investment is not going to hurt most people, and a modest collection can be built by careful selection of such lower end marbles. After time, however, you’ll discover that the pickings are slim at such locations. Some shows are small and others are large: while a few have barely more than a half dozen dealers set up, others may be able to boast 50-100 tables. One more technique warrants mention, though few seem to employ it. Certainly, all have had more than their share of wild goose chases; you will find that everyone who calls has a treasure trove of antique marbles, only to find upon your arrival at their home a fist full of catseyes. Placing an exact numeric value on anything, especially a collectible item, is tricky. Look up the values in price guides, and check out web sites to see if the marble is offered there. I have literally purchased certain marbles at a show, only to move to the very next table and find the same ones for a fraction of the cost! Most collectors will deny that they are in it for the potential for making money. There are also a few, however, who buy marbles with the sole intention of making money. When a bargain is obvious, snap up the marble if you don’t personally want it for display but know you can turn it over for a few dollars. But those who held onto them were in for a nasty surprise: soon it was discovered that the marbles were being unearthed in huge numbers at dump sites. Perhaps a better way of viewing your collection as able to be sold for a profit is long term. In other words, the potential for a long term investment is more secure than short term. They are generally great for identification, though the authors will readily admit they can not cover each and every type of marble out there. While mostly accurate at the time of publication, between updated editions the prices can and will rise and fall on most of the marbles. Remember, though a particular marble may be valued at a particular amount, slight variations in the colors and patterning of a given type can wildly affect how much someone is willing to pay. A final word of advice: if you try to sell off your entire collection you’re going to discover you will make less overall than if you sold the marbles individually. Remember that a dealer has to make some money in the resale, so don’t expect to get “book” prices for your marbles. This method is very subjective and is dependent upon that person’s eyesight: obviously those with 20/20 vision are going to give a more accurate assessment than those who are farsighted! My favorite grading method is microscopic, though this too has inherent flaws. These are handy not only for grading, but also for detecting repaired marbles. Good marbles might have such damage covering up to 50% of the overall surface, and may also include damage so deep that polishing the marble could not remove it. Such examples may have almost no areas of glass unaffected by damage and wear. First, are not marbles in better condition also collectible? The second system is numerically based and often controversial, since there is no set standard for most of this precise grading. All contemporary marbles should have this grade, though very few antique or vintage marbles will ever be graded as such. There may be minor wear, a sparkle or two, or a tiny subsurface reflection or moon. Roughly half of the surface will have damage, and wear is generally heavy. Polishing will probably not remove all the damage without substantiallyreducing the size of the marble. You would be taking a risk to try to have such a marble polished.


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