Notwithstanding the differences, in each country support emerged very early on for social minimum standards, but strong disagreements within each country quickly developed.
More recently, the strong impact of efficiency related critiques of welfare regimes has crowded out more nuanced and complex discussions of the past.
The ongoing debate on economics and welfare can be greatly improved by way of stronger consideration of different lineages of both liberal and neoliberal lines of economic thought.
The result was divergence, as the debates shaped different welfare regimes.
Monsanto’S Agent Orange Accountability & Forcing Billionaires Off Welfare | Duration 28 Minutes 1 Seconds
The editors provide fundamental reading for understanding the origins, history and undermining of the welfare state (and its stubborn resistance to wither away completely).
Those seeking a field guide to the historical divergences of liberalism and neoliberalism in the twentieth century need look no further.
The Politics Of Economics and ‘Very Serious People’ by thefiscaltimes.com
When they are asked to step up and pay more taxes to reduce the deficit, for example, their tune generally changes.
To what extent do our politics determine our economics?
They agree that market failures exist, though they generally do not believe they are as severe as those on the political left are.
I think it’s very clear that government, though far from perfect, can make things better in most cases.
But it is also subject to business cycle variation that can impose large costs such as unemployment and all the problems that come with it on people who did nothing at all to cause the recession.
When this happens, conservatives believe that government should get out of the way and let the economy heal itself.
So long as everyone has an equal chance at success, there is nothing to worry about.
We should still do all we can to equalize opportunity, but redistribution cannot be avoided.
So there is an efficiency argument for redistributing income.
No matter how hard they try, no matter how much education or retraining they receive, they won’t be able to find jobs that have been taken over by machines and digital technology.
I have no doubt that political considerations motivate the views and policy proposals of some economists, particularly, though far from exclusively, those outside of academia.
It was later broadened to describe people who advocate for the tough position on any issue – budget cuts and entitlement reform to ease debt worries, increases in interest rates to prevent inflation, and so on – despite evidence contrary to their policy proposals.
I actually hope that it’s the other way around, that economic considerations drive my political views on economic issues.
What Is Consensus History? What Does Consensus History Mean? Consensus History Meaning | Duration 4 Minutes 30 Seconds
This speaks directly to the debate over the extent to which governments should intervene in private markets.
They believe the less that government interferes in the private marketplace, the better.
But conservatives believe that government usually makes things worse.
The capitalist system is better than all other economic systems we know about at satisfying household demands and producing economic growth.
In essence, the capitalist system imposes externalities on innocent households when it goes into one of its periodic downturns.
Once again, their view is that government mostly makes things worse despite its good intentions.
Beyond monetary and fiscal policy, social insurance programs such as unemployment compensation, food stamps, and medical insurance that does not end with unemployment can further ease the burden that recessions impose on households.
I was one of those people who believed in leveling an extremely uneven playing field, and then letting the chips fall where they may.
Second, it isn’t possible to equalize opportunity without some a priori redistribution.
Third, technological change may doom some households to a meager existence.
That is not their fault, it is an outcome of the economic system itself, and some type of social insurance that augments their income is appropriate in such a case.
I think are important and what empirical results are the most noteworthy.
And when the economics and politics are at odds, as they often are on issues such as free trade and immigration, the economics must prevail.
Today’S Civil Strife Is Rooted In Economic Frustration and Fallacy by fee.org
The prospect of having vast presidential power wielded on their behalf drew their attention away from the elite authors of their misfortune and led them to turn on each other: to cast hungry eyes on whole subpopulations, great swaths of regular people and fellow victims of government oppression.
Both were political movements, and politics is fundamentally about factional aggrandizement at the expense of principle.
But at bottom, they are really fighting to conquer and hold advantageous ground for use in a larger economic war, waged through politics.
Rather, it is the perception that lefty obstructionists are threatening their ability to wage exclusionist economic warfare on the non-native industrious and poor.
Their chief difference is over where to draw the battle lines.
This zero-sum fallacy is the root of the socialist left’s obsession with how the “wealth pie” is divvied up as well as the nationalist right’s preoccupation with how the “jobs pie” is apportioned.
The socialist left doesn’t understand that the capital accumulated by capitalists redounds to the benefit of labor, because capital investment increases the productivity of labor, and so leads to a continual rise of real wages.
The nationalist right doesn’t understand that free competition in trade and labor, irrespective of birth or nationality, redounds to the benefit of native workers, because it expands the sphere of economic cooperation and allows and incentivizes workers to find their role of greatest comparative advantage in the division of labor.
Stubborn efforts to do so by trying to overwhelm tribal enemies, whether by storming the voting booths or storming the streets, will ultimately only lead to an outright civil war in which everybody loses big time.
And the only way we can lastingly stop others from waging economic warfare is by spiritually attacking the socialist and nationalist fallacies that drive it.
Socialism and nationalism can only be dissolved by the ideas of liberty and peace, cooperation and harmony, independence and individualism.
Hillary Clinton Attacks Donald Trump And The Alt Right! | Duration 32 Minutes 34 Seconds
The escape route from humiliating, idle loser-dom is not through politics and tribalism, but through individual self-improvement and enterprise.
And today’s public agitation is largely an extension of the protest movements that emerged in the wake of that downturn.
The power elite were sweating under the hot lights of public scrutiny and populist outrage.
On both the left and the right, the populist movements fully succumbed to the politics of resentment, envy, and avarice.
The populist candidates of 2015 served these classes of people up as sacrificial scapegoats, heaping upon them the blame for the economic troubles of their constituents.
The candidate who sermonized most stridently against “greed” was the biggest greed-monger of them all.
The street combatants on the left and right claim to be fighting, respectively, for free speech and against fascism.
The state has impoverished its subjects through its ruinous burdens and meddling, and it has used democratic demagoguery to shift the blame and pit its victims against each other.
Many of the other preoccupations of the left and right are largely a validating veneer for this underlying economic warfare.
So is the demographic panic of today’s new wave of white nationalists.
Both the socialist left and the nationalist right consider warfare to be necessary and inevitable.
Both the left and right believe that society is suffused with fundamental and unavoidable conflicts of group interests.
But in lean times, the strife can start spilling out into the streets.
Aside from institutional factors, warfare sociology is also cultivated by an ideological factor.
Instead of making productive connections, they sow destructive divisions.
Most are blind to this exciting state of affairs, and so instead of finding entrepreneurial solutions to their economic problems, they waste their time and energy chasing political solutions.
Instead of focusing on improving their own lives, they join mobs on the web and on the streets to demand that government fix their problems for them at the expense of others.
And using government or paramilitary force to try to crush the most thoroughgoing socialists and nationalists isn’t the answer either, because that will only cause the war to intensify and spread.
To alleviate our civil strife, we must understand that its roots are economic.
Socialism and nationalism feed off of violence, and so cannot be overcome through violence.
The economically frustrated, and especially the young, can indeed turn things around, but only if they stop wallowing in resentment and dependence.
A Tale Of Two Moralities by nytimes.com
Ep21.2 Mark Latham’S 8 Point Plan To Prevent Terrorism (Part 2) | Duration 20 Minutes 47 Seconds
But the truth is that we are a deeply divided nation and are likely to remain one for a long time.
And the real challenge we face is not how to resolve our differences — something that won’t happen any time soon — but how to keep the expression of those differences within bounds.
But what we’re talking about here is a fundamental disagreement about the proper role of government.
In a way, politics as a whole now resembles the longstanding politics of abortion — a subject that puts fundamental values at odds, in which each side believes that the other side is morally in the wrong.
What we need now is an extension of those ground rules to the wider national debate.
It’s not enough to appeal to the better angels of our nature.
Obama alone if necessary — declare that both violence and any language hinting at the acceptability of violence are out of bounds.
Obama urges us to expand, about divergent beliefs over what constitutes justice.
It’s only right, this side believes, for the affluent to help the less fortunate.
That’s what lies behind the modern right’s fondness for violent rhetoric: many activists on the right really do see taxes and regulation as tyrannical impositions on their liberty.
When people talk about partisan differences, they often seem to be implying that these differences are petty, matters that could be resolved with a bit of good will.
Yet we have, for the most part, managed to agree on certain ground rules in the abortion controversy: it’s acceptable to express your opinion and to criticize the other side, but it’s not acceptable either to engage in violence or to encourage others to do so.
Right now, each side in that debate passionately believes that the other side is wrong.
What’s not acceptable is the kind of violence and eliminationist rhetoric encouraging violence that has become all too common these past two years.
We all want reconciliation, but the road to that goal begins with an agreement that our differences will be settled by the rule of law.
Immigration In The United States: New Economic Social Political Landscapes With Legislative Reform On The by migrationpolicy.org
The fourth peak period began in the 1970s and continues today.
Dilorenzo, Taghizadegan, Gabb, Hoppe,, Discussion On Current Affairs, Q & A (Pfs 2015) | Duration 49 Minutes 37 Seconds
As a result, immigration policy has often been increasingly disconnected from the economic and social forces that drive immigration.
The results and voting patterns of the 2012 presidential election gave both political parties new reasons to revisit an immigration reform agenda.
This peak immigration period—the last large-scale immigration wave prior to the current period—also led to new restrictions.
It also expanded inadmissibility grounds to include anarchists, persons previously deported within the past year, and illiterate individuals over the age of 16.
The 1965 act increased numerical limits on immigration from 154, 000 to 290, 000.
Today’s large-scale immigration began in the 1970s, and has been made up of both legal and illegal flows.
Although immigration served as a source of econo mic productivity and younger workers in areas where the population and workforces were aging, a large share of the immigration was comprised of illegal immigration flows.
Immigration—at both high and low ends of the labor market, both legal and illegal—was an important element in achieving the productivity and prosperity of the decade.
With more than 14 million newcomers (legal and illegal), the 1990s reached numerical levels that out-numbered the previous all-time high set during the first decade of the 20th century.
The foreign-born population is comprised of approximately 42 percent naturalized citizens, 31 percent permanent residents (green card holders), and 27 percent unauthorized immigrants.
Employment opportunities—particularly in agriculture, food manufacturing and construction—mainly fueled the new settlement patterns.
The most common ways to immigrate are through the family-based or employment-based channels.
Family-based immigrants must be sponsored by a qualifying relative under any of six categories of relatives.
In the 1970s and 1980s, refugee and humanitarian emergencies led to annual admissions of more than 200, 000 during some years.
Today’s large-scale immigration has coincided with globalization and the last stages of transformation from a manufacturing to a 21st century knowledge-based economy.
When changes have been made, they have generally taken years to legislate.
By the mid-1980s, an estimated 3 to 5 million noncitizens were living unlawfully in the country.
And the heart of the law—employer sanctions—had weak enforcement provisions that proved ineffective at checking hiring practices of sizable numbers of unauthorized immigrants.
The trend has continued into the 2000s with more than 16 million newcomers from 2000-10.
Although this is a numerical high historically, the foreign born make up a smaller percentage of the population today than in 1890 and 1910 when the immigrant share of the population peaked at 15 percent.
Libertarians Are Idiots Gold | Duration 3 Minutes 26 Seconds
Ten states, mostly in the south and west, have experienced over 270 percent immigrant population growth since 1990.
These changes and patterns help to explain why immigration has become an issue of national political concern and debate.
Family-based immigration rests on the principle of family unity.
The statutory determination to qualify as a refugee or asylee is the same.
The Ultimate Externality by fee.org
A free people are remarkably creative in devising ways to peacefully “internalize” what would otherwise be externalities.
The mere ability to express opposition to behavior that imposes costs on you does not alone protect your interests if those who wish to impose these costs remain free to do so.
Without an effective ability to prevent him from continuing to pollute, he will likely do so.
By simply pulling a lever, each voter acts to inflict his moral views on peaceful others, making them worse off.
The greater the scope of government power, the greater the number of instances in which each of us, as a voter, can impose our preferences on others.
Each can express his views about how others should live without in the least taking serious heed of the consequences to others.
A state that stands ready to coerce those with less political power to do the bidding of those with greater political power is a constant source of negative externalities to the losers.
Sometimes they fail, most notably when part of the cost of a person’s actions is shifted onto others who don’t consent to bearing this cost.
Preventing such externalities is held to be the principal purpose of the state.
American rivers and streams were emphatically not filthy dumping grounds.
Government is certainly not the only feasible mechanism for dealing with such potential problems.
First, merely giving government power is insufficient to ensure that this power will be used as intended.
Even if the tasks are not impossible, they are unlikely to be carried out unless government officials have the proper incentives, which they too often lack.
Second, government by its very nature is itself a source of negative externalities.
He can costlessly impose his will on unconsenting third parties.
Suppose that you tell the owner of the polluting factory that you object to his stealing your clean air.
That you spoke out against the pollution to the factory owner—that “your voice was heard”—doesn’t change the fact that the ongoing pollution imposes a negative externality on you.
Moreover, because the personal consequences to each voter of yanking this lever rather than that lever are nil, each voter is fundamentally irresponsible.
And whenever those who prefer to restrict the freedom of others are in the majority, the minority are obliged to obey.
To promote the state as the solution to what few private externalities exist is a bizarre irony and a dangerous hoax.
The Letters Of Gertrude Bell Volume 2 by gutenberg.net.au
It is quite empty still, but we are going to clean it out and build it up as soon as possible.
Percy made me most welcome and said a house had been allotted to me.
Meantime all my acquaintances and friends have flocked in to see me.
It’s immense fun, and also it’s a great pride to be provided with so many acquaintances.
It’s almost too hot already for unwashable clothes, even in the evening.
Mother have sent to me by post six pairs of thin white thread stockings, and the same of brown–rather dark brown.
I can’t write any of the interesting and pre- occupying things, so you must put up with small change.
The two learned men who dwelt in the respective mosques were my enthusiastic guides.
I suppose it will all straighten out in time, meanwhile it’s laborious.
But the end of the day finds me with two or three unfinished things and no hope of getting at them the day after.
That’s the only bother–there’s always just a bit too much to do.
It’s gloriously cool still but that must certainly end in a day or two.
It’s an immense opportunity, just at this time when the atmosphere is so emotional; one catches hold of people as one will never do again, and establishes relations which won’t dissolve.
I never get through my work, but that’s better than having no work to get through.
Anyhow, it’s a great ‘coup’ getting him to burn his boats and come in to us.
At that they almost wept with gratitude and declared that they would forthwith send me a beautiful mare.
But oh to be at the end of the war and to have a free hand!
I lay flat on a bed in a draught in my nice cool room in the office for 3 days and saw no one, and curious as the treatment seems it has now restored me to rude health.
This is the 9th day we’ve been at it, tying up for a few hours at night but steaming 17 or 18 hours a day notwithstanding.
By good luck my servant turned up late that night, so that there was someone to water tea for me next morning.
I decided at once that this was the thing, but a kitchen had to be built and a bath room, and sunblinds to be put up–a thousand things.
Naqib, the head religious man and an ally of many years’ standing, and have been received with open arms.
My programme is to ride from 6 to 7:30, come in and have a bath and breakfast and then straight to the office.
The head survey man is an enthusiast, and gives me a free hand.
I spent a couple of hours yesterday before breakfast inspecting an exquisite 14th century mosque and a tomb of the same date and seeing what repairs were immediately essential.
We must have a trained architect out as soon as possible.
I would like to go back there, though it will make my heart ache a little.
We have not got nearly enough clerks and typists, one never seems to roll the stone finally to the top of the hill–it rolls back for want of mechanical appliances.
What does anything else matter when the job is such a big one?
It’s not really hot yet, seldom up to 100, but it must begin soon.
I hope they are swallows, so to speak, announcing all my summer clothes.
I hope that with his help we shall get a move in among the tribes.
The excellent oranges are nearly over, but the apricots have come in in masses and small sweet greengages, and now the good little melons have begun.
I shall ever be able to detach myself permanently from the fortunes of this country.
There are so few of us, you see, that each one is absolutely salient and each is a focus for so many hopes and fears.
BookNotes by heartsandmindsbooks.com
I don’t have the stamina to review them all with the care they surely deserve.
Some readers will recall that several decades ago there was much conversation about how best to define mission work — words or deeds?
The book is arranged in four units, with a couple of great chapters in each.
It is vital for all to frame your own ministry and congregational integrity for the next decade.
I know pastors whose ministries seem not to bear much earth-shaking fruit, but they love their flock.
It seems to me — and this good story captures it — that learning to love and serve real people in a real congregation in a real place is most of what a pastor does.
What a fun and helpful array of prayerful ideas from stimulating voices.
But, to be blunt, can these very practices harm people?
And it is about a certain sort of audacious collaboration — not just with other leaders in your church, not even with other churches, but other community leaders, and other community institutions.
I think he makes a great case for this and invites us to new forms of worldly holiness and healthy collaboration.
Consider it a small price to pay for hearing about this stuff from us.
By doing so, has opened a window for thinking about our own troubled times.
This recent book offers a variety of voices on that story, where we’ve been, what’s going on now, and what might be to come.
Read this important book to learn to be challenged to embrace what it means to be truly whole and reconciled.
It offers us key trends we have to be a part of, one way or another; he pitches them as challenges, but it could just as easily have been written as opportunities.
Even if he’s partially right, there is so much good stuff here to ponder and so many theologically-driven, culturally-savvy imperatives that it is sure to be an aid to your growth in deeper faithfulness.
Many of these books are great, and many of the more popular misisonal books are in discussion with them.
Goheen, that is, is an important figure in several different traditions and communities.
None of her fresh energy and church growth plans and outreach programs worked; she could not, as she puts it, drag them into a future they did not want.
I know some who captain large and effective institutions, but have little affection for their place or their people.
For much too long the text has been neglected through complacency, timidity, and embarrassment.
Lauren is a gracious, at times luminous writer and those that love her memoirs will recognize her voice in some of these lovely and poignant stories.
This isn’t new for most mainline folks, but for more evangelical folk, it may be a stretch.
He has helped us to birth a statewide coalition focused on awakening the faith-based community to bring hope to every child through serving our local schools.
WOA! by overpopulation.org
This spells trouble for marine animals that are now having difficulty building shells, growing and sometimes even surviving in increasingly corrosive waters.
But after 1996, few undiscovered fisheries were left and catches started to decline.
Illegal and pirate fishing take place in many parts of the world.
And then there is climate change and ocean acidification which threaten to flood nesting sites and disrupt food sources.
Currently, only 2% of the world’s oceans are under some form of protection and less than half of those ban fishing altogether.
With so little of the ocean closed to fisheries – less than 1% – it’s hardly shocking that many seabirds are suffering from overfishing.
Plastic in animals’ stomachs not only release deadly toxins, but can also lead to slow starvation by obstructing the animals’ bowels.
In the end, large-scale actions to help seabirds could also go a long way in cleaning-up our increasingly trashed marine ecosystems.
This drives a massive ocean conveyer belt, driving less oxygen rich bottom waters to the surface where they can be reinvigorated.
However the bad news is that there were a lot of data suggesting that we’re in a really important transition zone and we seem to be on the verge of transitioning from an era in which harvesting and fishing of marine resources has been the main driver of impoverishing biological diversity to one in which massive habitat change and, `global chemical warfare’ (acidification) may be waged on the oceans.
But by the end of this century, many of these animals may be history due to man’s reckless abuse of the planet.
However, in as little as 20 years they will be very different and, in some parts of the world, entirely gone.
This acidification is the fastest change in the ocean’s chemistry in 300 million years, according to scientists.
They are the emptiest places on the planet, where there’s little oxygen and sometimes no life at all, almost entirely restricted to some unicellular organisms like bacteria.
Of the 21 marine species known to have been driven extinct in the past 300 years, 16 disappeared since 1972.
The global fish crisis has become so severe, scientists and wildlife managers are breaking the human population taboo, calling not only for reduced consumption and better regulation, but for alleviation of poverty and “stabilization of the world’s human population”.
High acidity interferes with the ability of baby scallops to form a protective shell, forcing them to expend more energy and making them more vulnerable to predators and infection.
Several other stresses include overfishing and eutrophication (excess fertilizers adding to depletion of oxygen in the water).
Fishermen are struggling to comprehend how the sacrifices they made in the last decade to idle boats and catch fewer fish were for naught.
Eight months into the fishing year, the entire fleet has caught just 44% of this year’s cod quota.
But it’s unclear if fishermen will be able to make as much money from these species.
Plankton changes, combined with rising ocean temperatures, could affect the success of young marine life because so many species time their spawning to the spring bloom.
Applied to the ecosystems in the earth’s oceans, the number of variables that bear upon that species – temperature, salt levels and the state of species nearby or across the world, for example – becomes too great to be included in any predictive model.
By the time they identify a problem and propose a solution, their work becomes obsolete, their discoveries made irrelevant.
Scientists don’t want to be seen as alarmist, so most will err on the conservative side of the estimates that result from their work.
Predictive models can remain meaningful in the short term, but over time, the growing number of variables that play a role in determining the fate of any plant or animal becomes virtual ly impossible to make sense of.
Aside from the unsettling fact that the systems that support human and other life are disintegrating at an increasing rate, no one can say for sure exactly what the world we’re rushing into will look like.
Birds, fish and other animals are known to regularly consume plastic waste, mistaking it for jellyfish or other prey, but it cannot be digested and remains in the stomach.
The most comparable event was 55 million years ago and was most likely 10 times slower than the current acidification.
The chemistry of these waters is changing at such a rapid pace that organisms now experience conditions that are different from what they have experienced in the past.
In the past increases in the atmosphere’s carbon dioxide levels resulted from volcanoes and other natural causes, but today the increases are due to human activities, say the scientists.
The area is one of the richest marine biodiversity hot spots in the world.
As the population of this area has nearly tripled in the last three decades, the effect on the reef has been devastating.
Many use dynamite or cyanide, indiscriminately killing everything within their reach.
Fishermen have created a marine preserve to help revive fish stocks.
The program shows how closely tied family planning is with environmental conservation and putting food on the table.
For them, it’s about something much more immediate, like what kind of future they’re going to pass on to their two children.
Carbon dioxide pollution is also being absorbed by the ocean, causing its chemistry to change and become more acidic.
A more exhaustive study, taking over a decade shows that the annual catches between 1950 and 2010 were much bigger than thought, but that the decline after the peak year of 1996 was much faster than official figures.
The decline since 1996 has largely been in fish caught by industrial fleets and to a lesser extent a cut in the number of unwanted fish discarded at sea.
Seabirds are about twice as likely as land-based birds to be threatened with extinction.
In contrast, nearly 15% of the world’s terrestrial landscape is protected.
Hammill said the “most pressing issue” is plastic pollution.
Seabirds continually mistake plastic for fish eggs, devouring large amounts.
Birds even feed plastic bits to their young, killing their fledglings en masse.
It also drives this ocean revitalizing train of currents through every major corner of the world ocean.
The oceans are taking up the greenhouse gases that we dump into the air, which turns the waters deadly to its inhabitants.
Bivalves such as clams, oysters and mussels use calcium carbonate to make their shells.
Other sea creatures with shells don’t make their shells the same way but the acidification appears to harm the working of the gills and change the behavior of the crustaceans when they are very young.
Along the coasts and out in the deep, huge “dead zones” have been multiplying.
In this radically changed environment, some creatures died out while others adapted and evolved.
The oceans have absorbed about a third of the carbon humans have pumped into the air since industrialization, helping to keep earth’s thermostat lower than it would be otherwise.
Under this intense pressure global fisheries are collapsing.
Scallop operations big and small are reporting die-offs this year.
Ocean acidification is one of the three big stressors on the oceans alongside warming and decreasing oxygen concentrations.
This film presents an unquestionable case for why overfishing needs to end and shows that there is still an opportunity for change.
The only option is to dramatically restrict fishing to give the fish any hope of a comeback.
Some fisherman say that cuts may not be as drastic as they sound because so many fishermen can’t catch their quota anyway.
No wonder scientists were “surprised” to find that the size of individual fish in the world’s oceans is likely to shrink by as much as one quarter in the coming decades.
This event precedes what’s known as “runaway,” which o ccurs when a critical number of those parts stop working and irreversible “tipping points” have been passed.
With 9 billion people expected by 2050, that number will assuredly rise, as will the importance of our understanding of how ecological systems deteriorate.
In their efforts to understand the unraveling, scientists can only scramble to bring their models up to date as their subjects approach levels of complexity that lie beyond the power of any human to comprehend.
Plastic pollution has many long-lasting and even fatal impacts on marine life.
Plastics also slowly release toxins and other chemicals, which can build up in the food chain.
While it is too late to do much about the plastic already circulating in our oceans, which it will take thousands of years to degrade, we can take action against future pollution by advocating the use of biodegradable materials and by changing consumer attitudes and behaviour.
During those times, increases in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere warmed the planet and made the oceans more acidic.
This dissolves the carbonates needed by some organisms, like corals, oysters or the tiny snails salmon eat.
More than a million people depend on these fishing grounds for their main source of protein and livelihoods.
With smaller families, thinking about future generations is a luxury fishermen can afford.
If you have many children, it’s difficult to support them.”..
Sometimes, we would only eat once a day because we were so poor.
In just six years since the program was first established here, family sizes have dropped from as many as 12 children to a maximum of about four today.
I don’t want them to be like us, just to fish the sea, just to farm the land.
People have to collect government assistance checks for food.