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Sculpture Of Ancient Greece

It still determines our definition of what sculpture is, our present-day techniques are derived from it, and it still serves as a point of reference for the use we make of art and the value we ascribe to it. We are also obliged to consider the origins of the concept of art, a concept that remains with us today. To this abundance of statues, statuettes and relief sculpture must be added written sources of two kinds. Secondly, there are many texts concerning sculpture and sculptors, some literary, and some in the form of inscriptions: particularly lists of wages paid.
Stone House Revival 1859 Kitchen Restoration From Vudu.Com | Duration 20 Minutes 1 Seconds The first obstacle is one common to the study of all relatively ancient civilizations: the older a work, the more likely it is to have been damaged, and the less we tend to know of its date, function and so on. Unfortunately, the restoration of missing parts of statues is virtually impossible. The mutilation of statues is particularly unfortunate because it often makes identification difficult. We shall be accepting the usual chronology here, but it must be admitted that the evidence for dating works is reliable only up to a point. However, the situation is different with more important works, for two main reasons. The fact that architectural sculpture was viewed as work of secondary importance often surprises non-specialists. The names of those men who carved the reliefs on friezes are not given at all. We owe the preservation of bronzes to special circumstances. In contrast to the almost total disappearance of any chryselephantine work and the rarity of sculpture using wood and bronze, thousands of marble works fill our museums. It too was painted: the texts of antiquity unequivocally say so, and in the few cases where circumstances have favoured its preservation, the paint is still visible. But the great majority of marble sculptures have lost the paint which partly covered them. The loss of so much sculpture is particularly detrimental because it does not fit the pattern of random loss common to ancient art forms. We have, in general, no reason to think that the study of individual artists is the best way of studying an art. On the other hand we have relief work, in which the sculpted forms are a fixed part of the block or plaque which constitutes their background. Greece, however, the figures were never carved into the background. We shall not be discussing such genres here, for reasons of space, but this extension of the category of “relief” does point up the technical diversity of the methods used to produce it.

1751 Two Floor Restoration | Duration 20 Minutes 3 Seconds They are carved, not drawn, and exploit the third dimension. There may also have been common sociological ground between the two crafts. Greek art can easily give us the impression that sculpture and figurative statuary were one and the same thing. Standing over thirty feet from the ground on the front of the pediment wall, however, where no one could observe them from behind, such statues were actually in a position better suited to relief. Sculpture in the round, on the other hand, is suited to the depiction of an isolated figure but has very little narrative potential, unless it resorts to the formula of the so-called “statuary group”. In short, the isolation of figures sculpted in the round and the incorporation of figures in relief work into their background, combined with the different iconographic possibilities that result from this, make for very distinct genres. Relief stands firmly with painting from at least two points of view. Relief and painting are related in showing figures against a background, statuary is related to architecture. Greek city states owed their fame and prestige to the genius of their artists; artists saw in sculpture the means of ensuring their survival beyond the grave; collectors and patrons were reputed for the boldness of their commissions. And it is an art with which we have the good fortune to be particularly well acquainted. And whereas buildings that have survived reasonably intact are few and far between, and major paintings have virtually disappeared, works of sculpture have been preserved in vast numbers. Most statues have been separated from their original pedestals, but attempts to match them are none the less instructive, making it possible to sketch out the careers of certain artists. Overbeck made a collection of such passages, which, though not exhaustive, runs to some three hundred pages. But much more than this is required if we are to obtain a complete and reliable picture. Her arms would have been posed in natural fashion; she may have held some object in her hands. And some sharp-eyed archeologists have achieved miracles in this field. This loss of identity leads to a series of confusions that can sometimes affect the attribution of a work to one sculptor rather than another. When taken to extremes by scholars who believe they can pin a date down to the decade or even the half-decade, this method can be very dangerous, because the works used as points of reference are not always incontestably dated themselves, and most of all because stylistic similarities and differences do not necessarily depend on period. We know that artistic chronology and geography affect the dating of a work; unfortunately we do not always always have a good idea of where any individual work was made. Above all, in the field of sculpture itself we tend to believe that the items now extant are the very best that were produced. In this technique, a wooden core was overlaid with carved ivory representing flesh, and plates of gold representing clothing. There is no universally accepted hierarchy of the materials used in sculpture, any more than there is of the different arts, but it is unusual for a civilization not to arrange them on a scale of values. This is suggested by its constant use for works of secondary importance: for copies of famous bronzes, which will be described below; for votive or funerary reliefs provided by minor craftsmen, no doubt at a moderate price, to anyone who wanted them; and for monumental sculpture. The more ancient a body of works of art, the fewer surviving pieces will there be, but what is preserved will be a representative sample of its culture. In this unfortunate situation, the total loss of original works by famous sculptors has very specific methodological implications.

1806 Stone House It’S Been A Whole Year! | Duration 2 Minutes 6 Seconds On the one hand we have sculpture in the round: free-standing statues which can be seen from any point of a 360-degree circle. Here, angles of vision only move through 180 degrees, since after that all we can see is the back of the work. However, it might be better to use those terms for a more important technical distinction. Whereas marble relief was carved with a chisel, relief work on coins was stamped on metal, and ceramic relief was either moulded with the vessel itself or applied to its side later. Of course it is their common features that enable us to embrace the two distinct arts of sculpture in the round and relief-work in the single term “sculpture”. Statuary and relief work were also related in their use of the materials and tools; they were carved in the same marble, with the same kind of chisel, by means of similar manual skills, or they were cast in the same bronze. Our own contemporary art has taught us that sculpture in the round need not represent a human figure. The two kinds of sculpture, statuary and relief work, are closely related by their use of the materials as well as by their subject matter. Statues and reliefs could also alternate with each other, for instance in pediments: while some architectural pediments had relief decoration, the tympanal frame usually contained statues. However, transcription from relief to statuary is in fact very rare; far more frequent is the move from statue to relief, as we shall see in those ceramic or numismatic reliefs that illustrate statues now lost. First, it shares with painting a certain similarity of procedures and iconography. He moved the animals slightly out of alignment so that their legs were not superimposed but formed parallel lines. These inscriptions are now obliterated, but a special photographic technique has recently allowed us to read them. Secondly, relief alternated with painting on items such as vases. It was pointed out above that statue and column are basically both rounded plastic forms, one figurative and the other not. And it is not easy to interpret the depictions that do exist.

History by cliffhouse.com

The third floor held a photo gallery, reception room, and multiple parlors with beautiful panoramic views. Sutro opened his estate to the public and was heralded as a populist for various projects that benefitted the general population. He won on an anti-big business platform but was not considered a successful mayor—his political career lasted a short two years. The various rides and attractions were separately owned by different concessionaires. During the next years many more rides and attractions were added.

Stone House Revival Season 2, Episode 1. Summer Kitchen Restoration From Amazon.Com | Duration 20 Minutes By 1934 the midway had 14 rides, 25 concessions, and 4 restaurants. While the exterior of the building was extensively modified in 1957 to appear as a giant camera, the internal workings of the camera obscura, the basis of its placement on the egister, remained unchanged since its erection in 1946. The museum contains one of the world’s largest privately owned collections of mechanically operated musical instruments and antique arcade machines. The museum also includes a small video game arcade with games of more recent vintage. Sutro made his fortune by initially by selling tobacco, and later by providing infrastructure for silver mines. It takes twelve men and four horses to remove his body from the beach. Though never a hotel, it served as an elegant site for dining, dancing, and entertainment. The second floor held 20 private lunchrooms, an art gallery, and a gem exhibit. This exquisite building had survived the 1906 earthquake only to succumb to a raging fire that destroyed it in less than two hours. Natural materials—concrete, copper, slate, and glass—were used to blend the new building into the scenic coastline. At the time of his death, in 1898, his fortune was extensive and his legal affairs in disarray. Spread over three acres, the artistic detail and engineering ingenuity were impressive. Together the pools held 1, 685, 000 gallons of seawater and could be filled or emptied in one hour by the high or low tides. There are still views of the ocean and surrounding coast from the semi-circular parapet located at the western end of the site, and at intervals along the oceanfront side of the park. It began as a collection of amusement rides and concessions in the late 1800s. Entrance is free, and most exhibits cost 25 or 50 cents to operate.

207 Classical Greek Tragedy: Aeschylus Classical Drama and Theatre by usu.edu



Saving The Floors In A 200 Year Old Stone House Renovation Episode 18 | Duration 5 Minutes 27 Seconds Aeschylus was almost as well known for his satyr plays as his tragedies, a reputation that endured for centuries. This litany of loss serves as a serious reminder that our picture of classical drama is far from complete, making reconstruction a difficult but inevitable aspect of dealing with theatre in this age. For instance, the victory lists document the rise of actors by indicating the period when they began to be awarded prizes. For instance, its subject revolved around recent history, not myth, making it also the earliest known historical drama. It seems unlikely, if not impossible, for all those early tragedians to have restricted themselves to presenting only male characters in their plays. Perhaps he wanted more time to work with the chorus and execute innovative dances and songs for them, so he froze the leading actor (himself?) centerstage. In other words, he has turned a convention which might be seen as a limitation in the eyes of less talented artists into an opportunity to generate dramatic tension by finding a novel and intriguing way of engaging the audience’s interest. His writing style is hardly less daring than his stagecraft. They could not believe a sober person was able to concoct such fantastical turns of phrase. Such fanciful stories accreted naturally around the great tragedians and point, if not to any literal truth, to the abiding popularity and pre-eminence of classical drama in the ancient world. While fragments of text and the occasional anecdote may shed a ray of light here and there, all but nothing can be confirmed from credible historical sources. This type of evidence is called epigraphical(“written on”) because the records were carved onto stone plaques, usually marble, and posted in public places. Given such data, we can piece together a rough outline of the course of early fifth-century tragedy. He, too, lays out the scene for the audience at the outset of the play. In other words, his popularity was ultimately very great but probably came neither quickly nor easily. His reason for choosing a tale like this is not as easy to pin down as its title character, however. It would certainly have saved him a considerable amount of time blocking the show. Aeschylus more than once has fun with his audience’s anticipation of whether a character will speak. Greek tragedy extant which does not take its subject matter from myth. The collocation of this triad of plays into a “trilogy” is the result of modern conflation.

1806 Stone House Episode 37 Framing! | Duration 8 Minutes 57 Seconds

A Digital Reconstruction Of Washington D.C. In 1814 by openculture.com

The scale of the federal city was that of a person, not of immense marble bureaucracy. Congress would meet during the tolerable winter/spring seasons and then go home; thereby avoiding the hot and miserable summers…. Facebook fanpage, you’ll receive more articles like the one you just read! Congressmen came to town for the legislative sessions, many times sleeping 3 to a room in a boarding house, and working in unfinished buildings. He finds the free courses and audio books you need, the language lessons & movies you want, and plenty of enlightenment in between.

Saint Isaac’S Cathedral Of Saint Petersburg by nevsky-prospekt.com

However, this first church was too close to the river bank and was soon destroyed in floods. Isaacs’ was too hideous and the butt of too many crude jokes, so it had to go. Whole forests were decimated to provide 10, 762 tarred pinewood piles which were driven into the marshy ground to a depth of 6 metres to provide long-term stability beneath the chosen site. On three sides massive granite steps made from single blocks, lead up to the entrances under imposing but elegant porticos. Main entrances are situated in both the northern and southern wings under porticos of double rows of eight highly polished monolithic red granite pillars, almost 18m (60 feet) high and over 2m (7 feet) in diameter. The eastern and western porticos are similar but smaller and have 8 columns apiece. Only after the porticos were completed were the main granite walls erected. The 25 m (over 80 feet) diameter dome is made of iron and covered with gold plated copper. The dome is elongated and surmounted by a lantern having a gold gilded top, which in turn supports a 6 metre high golden cross. The composition of the doors is multi-levelled and consists of bas-relief panels put into caissons. What was the cost of creating this imposing extravagant monster of a building? But what value should be put on human lives that were painfully lost during the forty years of construction. Untold numbers of serfs and laborers who worked for 15 hours a day without holidays were crushed or fell to their deaths from the scaffolding during the main part of construction up to 1842. This fantastic wealth and splendor, enhanced by hundreds of burning candles, colorful vestments of the resident clergy and their sounds of chanting provided a free spectacle that no theater could match. A major fire then ended any hope of reconstruction and this church was dismantled, leaving a void for ten years. Construction began on the site we see today, but this project was fated never to succeed. The eastern side, which houses the altar, has three oval w indows under its portico. The dome actually consists of three hemispherical shells mounted one inside the other, with 100, 000 clay pots separating the layers to form a lightweight vault and enhance the acoustics. The roof area also has four domed towers symmetrically sitting astride the northern and southern porticos. Each panel weighs ten tons and they can only be moved on their hinges with the help of the gearing that is built into the walls. More than 400 kg of gold, 1000 tons of bronze and 16 tons of malachite went into the interior. The walls themselves are faced with marble in many different colors. Isaac’s would not be complete without paying the extra few rubles and climbing the 262 steps of the spiral staircase to the colonnade walkway. Montferrand witnessed the consecration and was dead within a month afterwards. Hundreds of serfs lost their lives in the quarrying and transportation of the marble. Then at least 60 and maybe many more indirectly, died from inhaling mercury fumes during the gilding processes that took place under the domes.

History Of The U.S. Capitol Building by aoc.gov

Thornton’s plan depicted a building composed of three sections. At ground level, its length was 351 feet 7-1/2 inches and its width was 282 feet 10-1/2 inches. Improvements to the building continued in the years to come (running water in 1832, gas lighting in the 1840s), but by 1850 its size could no longer accommodate the increasing numbers of senators and representatives from newly admitted states. Several suitable plans were submitted, some proposing an eastward extension of the building and others proposing the addition of large north and south wings. Chief among these was the steady imposition by the government of additional tasks without additional pay. In 1873 the first elevator was installed, and in the 1880s electric lighting began to replace gas lights. The old sandstone walls were not destroyed; rather, they were left in place to become a part of the interior wall and are now buttressed by the addition. To strengthen the structure, over 1, 000 stainless steel tie rods were set into the building’s masonry. Ultimately, 40 percent of the sandstone blocks were replaced with limestone. The entire project was completed in 1987, well ahead of schedule and under budget. Capitol has been built, burnt, rebuilt, extended and restored. None of the 17 plans submitted, however, were wholly satisfactory. Work progressed under the direction of three architects in succession. In 1829, his work was done and his position with the government was terminated. The activities performed in the building were limited chiefly to cleaning and refurbishing the interior. The marble columns of the connecting corridors were also moved and reused. More than 30 layers of paint were removed, and damaged stonework was repaired or replicated. The walls were treated with a special consolidant and then painted to match the marble wings.

Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre London Reconstruction Heather Shimmin Photography by heathershimmin.com

Seeing a play in broad daylight, without the use of any artificial illumination, changes the dynamic of the theatre viewing experience. They are also much more vocal: laughs are quicker, responses seem sharper. Do let me know if you come across a worthwhile group! I wonder why the opposite experts of this sector do not notice this. Shakespeare’s manuscripts, which would have otherwise been lost forever as they were the only copies. Elizabethan playhouses in the area, all of similar size and shape. English oak beams were hand cut, hand carved, and shaped to form the timber frame structure, held into place by wooden pegs. People walk about and come and go, without affecting the performance. Eye contact between performers and spectators builds a sense of shared undertaking. Conventional theatres – by the dimming of house lights – try to obliterate themselves during a performance. I can get feedback from other experienced people that share the same interest. I do not recognize who you’re but definitely you’re going to a famous blogger when yyou aren’t already.

A Closer Look At The Victory Of Samothrace by musee.louvre.fr

Victory is wearing a long chiton, or tunic, of fine cloth, that falls in folds to her feet. The right hip and leg are covered to half-way down the calf. The hips and shoulders likewise are square to the viewer, and the torso is quite straight. The sculpture is much plainer on this side, as the artist must have thought it was not worthwhile expending so much effort on a side rarely seen by onlookers. The right wing currently attached to the statue is a mirror-image cast of the left wing. A tiny fragment from the top of the right arm shows that the arm was raised slightly away from the figure’s side and was bent at the elbow. The oar boxes on the base of the statue are particularly well preserved. Moreover, a slight downward slope in the horizontal surface on which the wings rested meant that their weight was borne by the body, so that two metal dowels were all it took to hold them in place. On a rectangular base consisting of six adjoining slabs stand seventeen blocks, originally held together with metal pins, forming three horizontal courses, rising slightly towards the front. The gap at the back of the top level was not part of the original work. The statue thus played an essential role in maintaining the balance of the work as a whole. They continued digging to find the head and arms, but in vain. As only two fragments of the right wing survived, it was replaced by a mirror-image cast of the left wing. The sanctuary thus had to be extended, and work began on the heights overlooking the site. The building had three walls, opening at the front onto the terrace with its portico. She is bringing it for the man who dedicated the stele, shown at the bottom with his wife preparing a banquet in honor of the gods. It was doubtless consecrated in thanks to the gods after a victorious naval battle. She is a female figure with large wings that enable her to fly over the earth spreading news of victory, whether in athletic competition or in battle. Angels only began to wear female garments in the late medieval period, when the draped cloak was no more than a small drapery worn like a shawl and the tunic became an elegant tight-sleeved gown with a high waist. To shorten the skirts, the cloth is gathered by a belt, hidden by the folds which hang over the hips. The fabric over the stomach and the left thigh is shot over with wrinkles that seem to skim over the skin underneath. A large gathering of folds have slipped between the figure’s legs, leaving the left hip and leg uncovered. The cloak has swept open, with a fold of cloth streaming out behind the figure, so that we see the inside of the cloth. The frontal view is structured by the line of the right leg outlined by the fabric of the cloak, while the left leg is almost entirely hidden behind the folds of drapery. Two surviving fragments from the original right wing indicate that it was raised higher, slanting upward and outward. Their position has been recreated thanks to the shape of the surface where they would have been placed. They were used to bear the weight of several tiers of longer, more powerful oars. The sculptor solved the problem by carving the outer face of each wing in one tier and slotting them into a sort of console decorated with feathers sculpted at the back of the main block forming the body. The course of the oar boxes at the back consists of two adjacent blocks, the deck of three. The left wing was put together from several marble fragments and strengthened at the back by a metal frame before being put in place. Neither the ornamentation on the prow nor the rams were recreated. To heighten the visual impact yet further, a modern block was added between the statue and its base during renovations in 1934.

Battle Of Appomattox Court House by en.wikipedia.org

Lee sent wagons out to the surrounding country to forage, but as a result lost a day’s worth of marching time. Lee’s army was now composed of the cavalry corps and two small infantry corps. The arms, artillery and public property to be parked and stacked, and turned over to the officer appointed by me to receive them. Officers were allowed to keep their sidearms, horses, and personal baggage. Confederates were now our countrymen, and we did not want to exult over their downfall,” he said. Lee hoped to break through the cavalry before infantry arrived. Notice sent to me on this road where you wish the interview to take place. It was the first time the two men had seen each other face-to-face in almost two decades. This will not embrace the side-arms of the officers, nor their private horses or baggage. I resolved to mark it by some token of recognition, which could be no other than a salute of arms. Bartlett’s division) and that he did not mention any “salute” in his contemporary letters, but only in his memoirs written many decades later when most other eyewitnesses had already died.

Rayburn Is Dead; Served 17 Years As House Speaker by archive.nytimes.com

Rayburn learned that he had cancer and that there was no hope, he asked that no flowers be sent to his death. In that role his often scowling countenance and big gavel, which he wielded with firm authority, became a familiar sight to television viewers. Other helpful assets included a reputation for unswerving veracity, massive integrity and consistent fairness, a personality devoid of pretension and a relaxed sometimes earthy, sense of humor. Rayburn held in testy contempt all efforts to classify his political philosophy as conservative, liberal, moderate or by any other such term. He felt that the economy of his state was largely contingent upon the financial well-being of the gas and oil-producing industry. A hectic, politics-ridden post-convention session failed to revive any of the bills. He had never before left the scene of legislation battle before the fighting had ended. Rayburn said he believed the speech reinforced his own boyhood decision to seek the office. He began to fail in health last spring, lost weight and appetite. He had thought the pains he suffered in his back were from lumbago. The cause of death was a paralysis of the breathing muscles in the central respiratory system. He looked wan, then and tired, for the first time in the memory of his oldest friends. He worked his way through by ringing the college bell, sweeping out classrooms, making fires and doing other odd jobs.

Historic Sites and Houses by seeplymouth.com

He is least remembered for being a farmer, fisherman and hunter. The ell was added and served as a summer kitchen, storage area and workshop. In the 17th century, grist mills were very important because corn was the major crop for the early colonists.

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