The Counters Blog

Senior Chemistry



It is up to the teacher and student to see if they are practical for their school situation. Overseas exports are increasing, particularly to international markets seeking premium quality boutique wines. After crushing the grapes the next step in the making of wine is the fermentation of the grape juice and pulp with various yeasts and bacteria. To control the heat, the winemaker must choose a suitable vessel size or else use a cooling device.


Vinegar Vs. Marble | Duration 1 Minutes 26 Seconds

This is not such an important one and the effects may be small – but nevertheless important. The amount of unreacted dichromate is then determined by adding an excess of potassium iodide solution which is also oxidised by the potassium dichromate to form iodine. You have a problem if you are dealing with red wine as the red pigments mask the colour changes. When analysing commercial wine, her students get very close to the %alcohol on the label. To overcome the practical difficulty in locating a small container to suspend above the dichromate – they use a plastic water bottle lid suspended with cotton thread. Many are just different strains of the same yeast but grow differently.

You used to be able to buy ‘compressed yeast’ which is essentially a yeast suspension with most of the liquid removed. A decision has to be made about the amount of each product to use to get some sort of equivalent mass of yeast for comparison (and how this is arrived at; is there any indication of the % composition of the two products). Is surface area a concern (maybe if one is a bottom fermenter, and another a top fermenting yeast). Will a low sugar or high sugar juice be used – important as it may be the alcohol itself that inhibits the yeast. And what about the dependent variable (alcohol concentration): will the rate of alcohol production be measured, or just the amount of alcohol present when the yeasts die or the sugar runs out; or will the alcohol be measured after a set time, eg 7 days?

It could also be taken further by using a continuous variable (amount of yeast product) in conjunction with the categorical variable. Grape juice is made up of these in roughly equal quantities. Then the sugars are transported across the cell membrane where they ferment and form alcohol. Saccharomyces cerevisiae consumes glucose faster than fructose because this yeast is know to prefer glucose (and so is called a glucophilic or ‘glucose-loving’ yeast). Fructose is the sweetest hexose sugar, approximately twice as sweet as glucose, and thus the wine gets an undesirable fructose sweetness, unbalanced by the sweetness of glucose.





Bicarb Soda And Vinegar Experiment | Duration 8 Minutes 58 Seconds

One delicious complication though is that when glucose and fructose are mixed (as in the case of fermenting sucrose; or in an artificial mixture) the glucose ferments faster than fructose. Note that 1% seems to be some sort of cut-off so examining concentrations either side of this would seem laudable. You could also monitor the reaction with a gas pressure sensor.

Sulfites are widely used in winemaking as a preservative to protect wines from oxidation and microbial spoilage but some people are sensitive to them. This sensitivity can cause a reaction that range from mild to severe: a dry ‘asthma’ cough is the most common. But you need the right amount: too little and the wine goes “off”, too much and it has a pungent taste and smell. This method is a bit vague but that’s for you to experiment with. It changes colour and the hydrogen sulfite ion changes to sulfite. The question is: what factors affect the ability of the bacteria to oxidize the ethanol in wine. It will take a bit longer to have sufficient change in acidity to be picked up by an acid-base titration.

However, winemaking is still somewhat of an art but is strongly informed by science. Most books say that the amount of ethanol produced is dependent on the sugar concentration of the starting juice but then give four different equations depending on assumptions made (such as the ratio and purity of glucose and fructose; or whether the fermentation gets ‘stuck’ at the primary stage). Fermentation at higher temperatures may have adverse effect on the wine in stunning the yeast to inactivity and even “boiling off” some of the flavors of the wines.

You could repeat it with acidity as the independent variable and controlling the amount of sugar, yeast, temperature and so on. As the alcohol concentration rises the yeast cell membranes become susceptible to rupture by the ethanol. In this analysis, you add an excess of standardized acidified potassium dichromate solution to the wine which converts the ethanol to ethanoic (acetic) acid. The iodine is then back-titrated with a standard solution of sodium thiosulfate and a starch indicator. In that case you have to extract the ethanol from the wine (in effect, by various forms of distillation) and carry on, as above, from there. Some parafilm is used to seal the boiling tube, or a suitably sized stopper if possible. A pair of forceps is used to remove the dichromate tube without spilling into the wine sample, the outside rinsed with water, and then titrated.

Manipulation of variables gives students a better chance of demonstrating all aspects of the assessment criteria. The packet says “yeast 98%, emulsifier (sorbitan monostearate) and ascorbic acid”. The majority of senior chemistry investigations use ‘continuous’ variables; that is, any value is possible within the limits the variable ranges. But when you are comparing two different categories of a variable, such as type of yeast (wine yeast vs. It is not just a matter of comparing equal amounts of the two yeast products on the amount of alcohol produced.



Baking Soda Is Awesome For Cleaning! 10 Cleaning Uses For Baking Soda (Clean My Space) | Duration 4 Minutes 26 Seconds

The two common fruit sugars used in winemaking are glucose and fructose.

Another sugar used in the fermentation industry is sucrose (cane sugar). In the initial stages of fermentation, sucrose is rapidly hydrolyzed into glucose and fructose by the action of the enzyme invertase on this bond. So investigating the fermentation of sucrose is really also about studying the fermentation of a mixture of glucose and fructose. At the start of fermentation, grape juice contains approximately equal amounts of glucose and fructose (called ‘hexose’ sugars).

Therefore, fermented grape juice will contain more fructose than glucose as residual sugar. However, when the glucose is below 1% it reacts faster than fructose. An then look at a mixture – or just look at sucrose as a natural mixture. A friend of mine has enjoyed white wine with sulfites for decades without a problem, but has become sensitive in his older age. Thus, the government requires labeling of any food or beverage with a sulfite concentration of more than 10 ppm. Sulfur dioxide is widely used in winemaking because of its antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Two titration methods for the analysis of sulfur dioxide can be downloaded here. You can precipitate the sulfite in wine by adding strontium chloride solution. Add 10% strontium chloride solution and it will go white if sulfites are present. When strontium chloride is added a white precipitate of strontium sulfite forms (right) and the solution goes cloudy.

Natural oxidation: leaving a sample of wine open to the air for a couple of days may make it taste “off” but this may not be a change in acidity but merely the flavour components oxidizing. A simple way is to get some organic vinegar from a supermarket or health food store that states on the label that it contains the “mother” – this means acetobacter.

New Year Resolutions That People Actually Kept by dailymail.co.uk

I was jowly, pasty and thick around the middle, but also tired, listless and lethargic. We are very lucky in my family: we have no relatively serious illnesses, but we are prone to diabetes. Of course, calorie reduction is not complicated: you just eat less.

Being overweight is as much a psychological problem as it is a physical one.



Bicarb Soda And Vinegar = Co2 | Duration 2 Minutes 4 Seconds

It’s a bit like giving up smoking: it’s not enough to know you should, you have to actively want to as well. Restricting my intake to within an eight-hour period effectively meant only two meals a day, which had a huge impact.

I became incredibly demoralised and the old demons returned.

This is a daily injection (via a device similar to an insulin pen) of a drug called liraglutide, which mimics the actions of the body’s own appetite-regulating hormones. It’s been licensed since 2010 and costs around £180 for a month’s supply, so it’s not cheap but, in my opinion, worth every penny. Just be honest with yourself, take your time and get as much help as you can. Yes, you might carry your plastic water bottle around for a few weeks, refilling it from the tap, but what about those toxic plastic residues leaching into the water?

I discovered the growing sense of satisfaction is addictive, but however much you do achieve, there’s always more. I refuse them even when buying clothes and shudder at the thought of pulling a flimsy bag off the roll at the supermarket (using reusable fruit and veg bags instead). The wrapping might say ‘recyclable’, but in reality your options are very limited. Take the recycled paper compost bags sold to hold food waste — it turns out they dissolve into mulch when moist, splitting and scattering potato peelings and tea bags all over the floor. You don’t have to be a full-on eco-warrior to make a difference. If everyone took a few extra steps to reduce their plastic consumption, that could be a 150kg of plastic trash saved from landfill, incineration or the sea per person, per year.

It’s a thought which, despite the effort and sometimes challenges of the past year, keeps me continually looking for new ways to avoid plastic. To say that my life has changed in the past year would be understating it. I loved the swaggering camaraderie of this reckless existence, the drama and narrative potential: from the highs higher than any high should be, to the lows that made one feel eviscerated, yet alive. Much as we adore each other, it wasn’t an easy decision for either of us: you don’t get to be single in your 40s without cherishing your freedom.



Clean Blocked Clogged Sink Using Soda Bicarbonate And Vinegar | Duration 3 Minutes 33 Seconds

The doctor said it was probably related to my menopause, but the weight wasn’t helpful. It seemed to me that there was only one thing to do: take control and shift the lard. Numerous places offer it, with small variations according to cost and location. Much has been made of the fact that pre-diabetics can reverse their diagnosis with a simple calorie-controlled diet. But, for a fat person, there is no such thing as a ‘simple’ diet. And, unless you can enlist both brain and body in the process of weight loss, you’re always fighting a losing battle.

But if you write down everything that passes your lips, it makes you think twice about it — and allows you to make a conscious choice about whether you are truly hungry or whether you can manage without. Walking and exercise in general became a pleasure once more.

Would cutting back on plastic require me to adopt full eco-warrior mode, forcing the family to go vegan and shunning gas-guzzling foreign holidays?

And would driving the car an extra few miles to a shop with a plastic-free aisle be considered an unnecessary waste of fossil fuels?

A weekly supermarket shop is stressful enough already, when it requires the typical working mum (me) to sprint around in under an hour, making on-the-hoof decisions about family meals, while keeping an eye on budget and nutrition. Bonus: it turns out a bar of soap lasts far longer than the liquid variety. My persistent plastic-nagging is the background hum of our lives now. It makes me angry that our local authority (like most) can’t or won’t accept flimsy plastic in the recycling. But one step at a time, and these are now on my resolutions list to tackle in 2019.

For a family of five, that could be 750kg plastic saved — enough to fill a double garage.

Only buy mushrooms in clear plastic punnets (black and brown plastic is hard to recycle). I became part of a ‘we’, a change in pronoun that leaves me faintly mortified. Not for me the suburban rectitude of predictability and routine. Thus it was only in 2018 that we finally embraced full coupledom as part of a cohabiting unit.



Natural Cleaning Vinegar And Bicarbonate Of Soda | Duration 7 Minutes 5 Seconds

There is some chemical reaction that quickly gets the rust off. It looks amazing in the video and so do all my very old pie dishes and my oven wracks!

The chemical reaction between coke and metal is entirely different than that of drinking it. Pour a bit of it on a clean cleaning cloth and rub the dried paint area. Coke can take off acid on a car battery, think about what it is doing to your stomach?

You don’t have to heat the pan, just spray and let it sit a while.

It will also season the cast iron so that food will not stick, including eggs. Sometimes though you get something and think, “that’s the end of this”, like this rusty pan. The orange stain is from the rust (iron oxide) and possibly it’s teaction with chemicals in the coke. It was because you’d mentioned that your hands had gone slightly orange that had me wondering if something in the coke and the rust combined might melt the rubber. If it’s strong enough to rid us of that rust, whatever is it doing to our insides! I use it on all kinds of adhesives and it’s never let me down. Will usually do the trick or spray water to wet the brick and then spray with vinegar about every 10 min. Take a clean white cotton towel and place 2 layers thick over spot and use a moderately hot iron and iron the towel. Using a clean soft cloth, rub the paste over the water mark until mark is gone. It’s also great for getting corrosion off your car battery terminals.

It’s not the carbonization that works on rust, so you can get something useful out of flat soda. Sometimes repeating the seasoning will be required after cooking some things. This way you wouldn’t need to take down your fixture but it does take some elbow grease!

Is Toxic Mold Exposure The Cause Of Your Symptoms? by jillcarnahan.com

Jills’ health community today and receive health tips, recipes and recommended products for a healthier you!

Are you one of the many people unknowingly living or working in water damaged building?

The most common symptoms associated with mold exposure are allergic rhinitis and new onset asthma. Have you noticed water damage or discoloration elsewhere?

Avoid exposure to porous items (paper, clothing, etc) from the moldy environment. C powder, or even gentle laxatives if needed but constipation is the enemy of detoxification! She uses functional medicine to help you find answers to the cause of your illness and addresses the biochemical imbalances that may be making you feel ill. She may use diet, supplements, lifestyle changes or medication to treat your illness but will seek the most gentle way to help your body restore balance along with the least invasive treatment possible.

Our family was sickened by hidden water leaks, thankfully relocating to a safer home. We looked for leaks in the roof and could not find anything. They don’t understand mold for the most part and will just blame it on depression and try to give you drugs. Thank you so much for writing, and being one of the wonderful docs dedicated to learning more and treating those of us who have been ill for so long. Our family got sick from a house that had hidden moisture problems and toxic mold. I know my health and my family’s has been effected dramatically by molds and toxins from the two previous homes we have lived in (rented) in the last 5 years….

My advice is leave everything that is porous and start over. I can get in touch with you to discuss what methods have helped you? The cerebrum is affected by the toxin traveling through the blood brain barrier and so the imbalance. After reading the small excerpt about diet it yet again confirmed another piece of this puzzle for me. Exposure to water-damaged indoor environments is associated with exposure to molds. How do you know if you’ve been exposed to mold or a water damaged building?

Have you worked or lived in a building where the air vents or ceiling tiles were discolored?

Do you experience recurring respiratory infections and coughing?

While you are using binders, you must maintain normal bowel function and avoid constipation. Three weeks ago we noticed that our bedroom closet floor was soak and wet. I even noticed that that in my kitchen where my dishwasher used to be, water was coming in from the bottom of the wall. It was leaking for some time considering the damage that was done and they were asking me why my water bill was going up….

I have been getting headaches and been nauseated, so has my boyfriend, my son has asthma and has been wheezing some but nothing major as of yet. It has helped but the symptoms continually occur throughout the day. I agree that the paleo-grain-free diet is a good option as many grains are contaminated with mold and will make you feel worse. You can’t begin to heal if you’re being poisoned every day. I really need to pay more attention to what is going in my body. We are thankful to be in a safe home and aware of the importance of fresh, clean air. Wont you bring the sppres with you in your boxed/bagged/binned belongings …?

I know this is hard but if you were sick in that environment and bring these things with you, they can continue to affect your health. I would encourage others who seem to have such a variety of symptons. So for me the edema is from the genetic issue but not from the direct mold toxin exposure.

I was referred to you and one other doc as “the closest mold toxicity specialists” to me.

DIY How To Remove White Heat Stains On Wood Table : TipNut by tipnut.com

A few are from chinese food takeout containers and another was caused by pizza boxes. There were also some watermark rings caused by setting cups and glasses directly on the surface. The steam iron took out the majority of the white spots, but left a light white tint still.

I tried the white towel with the steam iron and in just minutes the spots were gone. I had a perfect iron mark on my new mahogany dining room table. August 2, 2011 at 4:18 pm i thought my table was ruined by the hot food on paper plates which i stupidly put on my mahogany table. however thanks to your good advice of ironing on high steam setting over thin towel worked wonders then rubbed table top with olive oil its looking good now so many thanks!

Was feeling pretty depressed by the sight of the white ring. We then used the polishing oil to reduce the dull appearance but it looks great now thankyou! Sunday lunch on heated dinner plates but we had only set the table with fabric placements. The heat opens up the pores of the timber which soak in the moisture. Meths burns at a very low temperature and does not burn for long. This way you are not disguising the mark, you are removing it. I hovered while pressing the steam button for about 15 seconds, then wiped the excess moisture away and the white stain is gone- yay!

I brought it out over the holidays for card playing and commented how badly stained it was–while quickly covering with a cloth. It seems the heat from the containers scorches or somehow steams the finish. The bottom right picture is a snap of the finished table, all the stains are gone. I took a clean, white cotton towel that wasn’t too thick and placed it over the scorch marks. I let it sit for close to a minute, checked, and nothing happened.

I couldn’t believe it and it defied logic to me–wouldn’t the steam cause more damage?

I was quick to wipe away any moisture and water on the surface after each treatment. Rub in a paste of salt and olive oil, allow to sit for up to an hour. I then used lemon oil furniture polish and now my table looks just like new! As everyone says a hot steam iron hovering above a tea towel worked wonders. The steam seemed to make it much worse but slowly moving warm iron over the marks without the steam on and over a towel seemed to get rid of the marks. A second try for a few more seconds and the stain was gone!

The result was two almost circular white marks to match the square one!

Tenor, have you had any luck completely removing yours?

Used a little furniture polish to bring back the gleam and table looks awesome! The only method we use is dangerous, extreme fun and we have only known it not work twice. Just dampen the cotton wool with the meths and hold only in your left hand. Wipe over the ring mark with the cotton wool, make sure that your hand is well away and flick the lighter on at the edge of the mark. What happens is that the lit meths opens up the pores long enough for the moisture to escape before they close up again. You will damage your table, the mats resist heat they don’t repel it!

I put a damp washcloth (steam on my iron no longer working) over the spot and gently moved the iron back and forth for 15 seconds.

How To Clean Soap Scum Off Shower Doors and Prevent It From Coming Back by homerepairtutor.com

You’ll discover that it’s super easy to remove soap scum or hard water stains.

Vinegar is really acetic acid and this is why it’s such a thorough cleaning solution. Carbonic acid is unstable and immediately decomposes to carbon dioxide and water.

When you’re done viewing the video scroll down this page for additional info that you shouldn’t miss. Yes, the paste will get all over the shower floor but it’s not that bad to clean up. Then dry the shower doors with the window squeegee and a paper towel. I use this automotive product on my car windows to help water bead off during rain storms. This is what will prevent the soap scum and other deposits from sticking to the shower door glass. Our online store has great supplies for homeowners doing a bathroom remodel. Safely cleaned shower doors, without scratching the glass, and harming the environment.

The tip works wonderfully and everything smells nice too!

Let me know how your cleaning experience goes and if you use any other cleaning method that helps more than this one. Do this in an area that isn’t noticeable or doesn’t draw your eye in its direction.

If you don’t see a bad result like discoloration or pitting them it’s okay to move forward. Let it sit for 30 mins and then flush the drain with hot water. Lots of fizzing and foaming when the vinegar hits the baking soda which is normal. This is especially good for those of us who share a bathroom with kids who take long showers. Then use oil to rub a thin coat on the stainless steel as a barrier for easier cleaning in the future. After your doors are clean, spread some inexpensive hair conditioner on them. After 30 minutes use a stiff bristle brush to agitate the grout. I haven’t tried this yet but will soon put together a tutorial to test the results. And if you use a common automotive product it’s even simpler to prevent them from coming back. The acidity helps cut through dirt and grime (are these two things different?).

When you combine vinegar and baking soda they form carbonic acid. Place about 1/2 cup of baking soda in a plastic container and pour enough white vinegar on it to form a pasty mixture. I just scooped it into the plastic container with the spoon. This easy task helps stop the hazy film that makes your shower doors look so bad. May be convenient but it’s another chemical exposure u don’t need. I wouldn’t apply it to the floor of your shower as it might make it slippery and dangerous. We are renting a home and love to be able to do things myself if not too big. I always apply any chemicals on a small area to test how they react. I did apply the paste in this tutorial to my metal grab bars on the shower doors and no issues occurred. Test and wait 24 hours to see if anything happens that you didn’t foresee.

Pour one cup of baking soda in the drain and then pour one cup heated/hot white vinegar.

I use old baking soda that has been used in the fridge for this. Any chemistry tips on cleaning stainless steel and preventing smudges and marks between cleanings?

I also just use water for first cleaning of dust and crumbs, lol. It’ll leave a slight “film” on the glass which helps repel water/soap scum. For those of you who use hair coloring that comes with those small tubes of conditioner, that stuff works great!

I can tell you that the baking soda/vinegar paste did not harm my glass shower doors. Then pour this solution on top of your tile and allow it to sit for 30 minutes. You should pour additional mixture on top of the grout where necessary. Other people have recommended using baking soda/vinegar as well.

The thing is: did it truly get cleaned or did all the dirt just turn white?

Then scrubbed the trouble areas and rinsed with the shower head. Hey, if it looks good and the bleach isn’t ruining the grout or tile then you have a wonderful solution. Also, it can be used on the plastic lens on vehicles headlights that have began to haze.

Liquid Soda Crystals Versatile Cleaning Cleaning Remove Grease by dri-pak.co.uk

Wipe down again with a cloth rinsed in hot water to ensure no residue remains. Our business has continuously evolved since the 1960s, from packing food salt for grocery trade into producing and supplying traditional cleaning products to the retail trade.

Do not use soda crystals or liquid soda crystals on aluminium or lacquered surfaces or jewellery with soft stones such as opal. Whilst food salt and dishwasher water softening salt remain a key part of our business, growing interest in our traditional and natural cleaning products has led to our range being developed and extended.

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