The Counters Blog

The Marble Granite Resin Process: How And Why



In the quarry, the ever-evolving extraction technology has reduced the number of damaged or completely destroyed blocks, leaving the major repair burden to the polishing phase. The waste from manufacturing slabs of particular materials (especially some marbles) could represent 35 to 40% of production, thus considerably increasing the cost of the remaining slabs. There are materials just too fragile to be polished, leaving no solution but to close down quarries. Limited reserves of a particular color of stone leave only the worst and more damaged veins to be quarried.


Polyester And Epoxy Resin Basics | Duration 22 Minutes 22 Seconds

All the travertine and a great number of marbles are nowadays filled with either polyester resin or cement. The more fragile marbles have also a reinforced backing support, usually in a form of a fiberglass mesh. In this process, the main material used with the net is a polyester resin. The polyester resin has also the added value of fast drying time, making it a perfect solution for automatic line manufacturing. The main reasons for this lie in the different chemical structures of the two materials. The very thin cracks represent an additional problem, since no polyester resin would have the capability to deeply penetrate in the stone, harden up and give a sufficient strength to the material.

Using materials with optimum adhesion (epoxy systems) on granite, the typical problems were resolved and a new technology was developed. Additionally, its long hardening time allows the glue to penetrate deeply into the stone before the complete curing will occur. They also provide a solution when there is a need to glue the granite slab to another material (either aluminum honeycomb, glass or steel). The material also needs to be completely clean and dry, so the resin can deeply penetrate in the smallest cracks of the surface. After being mixed in the right ratio (either using a scale or an automatic mixing dispenser), the resin is then spread on the whole surface. During the polishing process, the first steps are focused on removing all excess resin poured on top of the slab, leaving only the resin that has filled into the cracks or the pits. One of the first noticeable affects of the resin is a darkening effect on the whole surface of the slab. This byproduct enhances the color of the slab and allows for a better polishing effect as a final result. Applying these products will allow you to permanently match the two colors with one application. These products will solve the problem only momentary, eventually leaving the customers dissatisfied in the long run.





Plastic Vs. Resin | Duration 14 Minutes 44 Seconds

The epoxy resin was invented in the early 1940s to develop a strong and durable product in the aeronautical engineering. So far, none of these tests have proven that the system cannot last for a long time. However, unless there is a particularly large hole that was repaired with the epoxy system, the small fractures are not affected by the local application of heat.

Technology has recently improved the quality of these systems, ensuring a better natural product at a marginal cost in the final outcome. A lot of these materials unfortunately have natural defects, mostly fractures and superficial holes and pits. There is a growing tendency in producing thinner slabs to reduce transportation costs and open up new markets and different stone uses. Many different kinds of granites have natural micro-fissures that compromise the final polished effect, thus reducing the beauty of the material. Some granites have fissures that pass through the slab and considerably decrease the strength of the slabs and pose an hazard when used as outside paneling. Those fillers are mainly used for aesthetic effects and to avoid open holes in the surface of the material. This solution gives a strong and durable surface for transportation purposes and to avoid breakage.

Although not a very strong glue, polyester resin in marble is still the method of choice, mainly to reduce costs (and it still has sufficient bonding strength due to the relatively soft and porous substance of the marble). Nowadays there are many differe nt kinds of polyester resins, with different viscosity, color and hardening times. Generally, the systems commonly used in marble processing are not satisfactory for granite processing lines.

Granite is much harder, with microscopic fissures and a different absorption rate. About 20 years ago, after some unsuccessful trials with polyester and acrylic products, a new family of products was tested. The epoxy resin has shown the capability to run into each of the cracks and fill all of the pits and micro-fissures present in the granite. The extremely high strength of the glue helps to fix any structural defects, giving the slab a very strong and durable finish. Before being treated, the surface of a granite slab has to be honed; to allow the surface of the material to evenly absorb the resin. This process requires special convection ovens or two to three days in favorable dry working conditions. Nowadays, there are hundreds of different epoxy systems for granite, with different physical characteristics.

After the system is completely cured (usually it takes up to 24 hours, depending on the system and the equipment used) the slab is ready to be polished. In this way, the epoxy resin will not form a film on top of the granite, and it will be present only in the interspaces and in the micro-fissures. This is due to the effect of the resin on the quartz itself. On lighter materials, and when this effect is not desired, the application of special epoxy systems allows the material to maintain its color. There are special products on the market for enhancing the color of granite and marble.



Video Response Resin Vs. Plastic Models | Duration 4 Minutes 45 Seconds

Beware, though, of easy solutions such as mineral oil or a cheap color enhancer.

Another question is whether the epoxy resin is safe for kitchen countertop surfaces, and whether they will be damaged if a homeowner were to place a hot item on the surface. As far as high temperature goes, the epoxy system has the tendency to soften up in presence of high temperatures. Even if there is a large patch of epoxy glue visible, it will go back to its original status as soon as the temperature goes back down to a normal level. The resin has the double effect of assuring the strength of the slabs and providing a clean feeling of touch to the homeowners and other end final users.

Difference Between Polyester Resin and Epoxy Resin by differencebetween.com

The type of fiber and polymer matrix system is chosen based on the final set of properties of the end-product. Unsaturated polyester resin is the most widely used type of polyester resin which contains double-covalent bonds in its polymer chains. Better mechanical and physical properties can be obtained in orthophthalic, isophthalic, and terephthalic polyesters. However, it is possible to determine the color by using pigments. Polyester resins can be cured at room temperature or at higher temperatures. Epoxy resin is a widely used polymer matrix; it is especially used in the production of carbon fiber-reinforced products in structural engineering applications. Unlike polyesters, epoxy resins are cured with acid anhydrides and amines by condensation polymerization. Epoxies can be cured at room temperature or elevated temperatures, which depend on the monomers used in the production process. Polyester resins provide strength and corrosion resistance, whereas epoxy resins provide adhesive properties, strength, and high environmental stability.

Homebrew wind power: a hands-on guide to harnessing the wind. The key difference between polyester resin and epoxy resin is that epoxy resin has adhesive properties while polyester resin does not have adhesive properties. Polyester resins can be used as a strengthening material and as a corrosion resistant polymer composite. This depends on the polyester formulation and on the catalyst used during the manufacturing process. Epoxy resins are well-known for their adhesive properties along with their strengthening ability. In addition, epoxy resins are applied to the dry fiber sheets in the field and then cured in-situ.

Usually, post-cured epoxy resin composites at high temperatures have higher glass transition temperatures.



Wicker Furniture Comes Of Age Various Types Synthetic Wicker Plastic, Resin | Duration 3 Minutes 22 Seconds

Epoxy resins are more likely to be used in high thermal applications. This is the difference between polyester resin and epoxy resin.

Engineered Stone by en.wikipedia.org

For engineered marbles the most common application is indoor flooring and walls, while the quartz based product is used primarily for kitchen countertops[2] as an alternative to laminate or granite. A typical resin based material will consist of 93% stone aggregates by weight and 7% resin (66% quartz and 34% resin by volume). The vibration helps compact the mixture and results in an isotropic slab with virtually no porosity. Some companies import boulders themselves to crush into agglomerates (stone powders) of various grain size for their products, others simply buy already-crushed stone powders. The material can be produced in either 12 mm, 20 mm or 30 mm thicknesses. Engineered stone is non porous,[6] more flexible, and harder than many types of natural stone. Polyester resin binding agents allow some flexibility, preventing cracking under flexural pressure. The material is sometimes damaged by direct application of heat. Manufacturers recommend that hot pots and pans never be placed directly on the surface, and that a hot pad or trivet is used under portable cooking units. Reaction resin adhesives and rapid drying cementitious adhesives are generally successful, but bond failure can occur with other cementitious adhesives.

Typically they can be re-polished all the way until they become too thin. Quartzite countertops on the other hand are natural and they are considered to be a high end countertop material. Risk of silicosis is high when little or no safety precautions or protective equipment are used. The application of these products depends on the original stone used.



Resin Versus Air Dry Clay Part 1 | Duration 24 Minutes 48 Seconds

The mixture of approximately 93% stone aggregates and 7% polyester resin by weight (66% quartz and 34% resin by volume) is heated and compressed under vacuum in a large press. Engineered stone is then processed in basically the same manner as its natural counterpart. Since it has a uniform internal structure, it does not have hidden cracks or flaws that may exist in natural stone and also has a color/pattern consistency from slab to slab. But, the binding agents often continue to harden, leading to a loss of flexural strength over time. When used as floor tiles, care is required in ensuring compatibility with the adhesive used. Marble is a relatively soft material which is prone to scratching, but also makes maintaining it much less difficult.

This makes them much more resistant to scratching, however it also makes re-polishing and general processing of them a more difficult task, which is why they are most commonly used for kitchen counter tops, where the value added through processing can offset their considerably higher cost. Quartz countertops are man-made even through quartz is a natural material.

The risk of inhaling quartz dust can be mitigated by taking appropriate safety precautions. This may occur in small shops or in countries where the industry is not regulated or monitored.

Radiant Dreamer &Raquo; Differences In Plastics &8211; ABS PVC Vinyl Resin Polystone Oh My! by radiantdreamer.net

The downside obviously, is it’s soft, there’s a high chance of leaning figures. By increasing the density and consistency, there is less chance of leaning. Figures” are by far the worst for the environment because of the “softening” additives. You can add texture to it, but it’s typically not a very fine texture.

Also, because of it’s hard nature, it’s impossible to get details that are more than 90 degrees angle, because oth erwise the piece will be caught in the mold.

It can be round on the top all the way down to the edge, but it cannot go beyond that 90 degree mark. What we commonly see in figurines is actually a synthetic resin. It’s more akin to liquid solidified, almost like soap. The pieces are cut up into logical manners to fit within the restriction, and it’s up to the hobbyist to hide the seams, and fit the pieces together.



Choosing Casting Resins | Duration 14 Minutes 56 Seconds

This may be why polystone is the material of choice for mass produced resin cast figures. It can also be used with paint to produce a resin of a certain color. I think with cold casting, the liquid resin is already cold, and is freshly mixed. It’s during this time that the liquid must be poured into the mold. It then melts and conforms to the shape of which it is placed on. The air blows and expands the plastic to the walls of the mold and is then cooled.

I thought for some reason that all figurines were made out of the same material, with slight derivatives. Obviously items like baby toys can be hazardous so it is invaluable to know what to look out for. If you want to be extra safe, there’s no harm in priming it first. It also wouldn’t lend itself very well for high detail. It is mixed at room temp to create an off white to lily white rigid plastic.

I personally have avoided buying polystone status/busts because it is relatively cheap and doesn’t match the price they are sold at. Also, because of its soft properties, sculptors are able to get away with putting in more detail and awkward angles. They do this with some of the single-leg standing pose figures. Kotobukiya figures are hollow inside, meaning that the figure is constructed out of various hollow tubes put together. That’s why all injection kits edges are always perpendicular.

The process is similar to epoxy – combining two liquids together to cause a chemical reaction of solidifying. The advantage of resin kits is that it’s soft and easy to sand and cut, while sturdy enough to hold up weight. The edges and cuts seem the cleanest, and a fair amount of detail can be put into it. There is a certain amount of time before the mix solidifies into a solid. I believe it’s because of this, that you can get such clean lines and smooth surfaces. A solid object is made as a base, and a sheet of plastic is placed on top, and heated. Another is the blow method, where a sheet of plastic is placed into an enclosed mold, heated with hot air. This is typically used to make plastic bottles like milk jugs. Look forward to more interesting tidbits about figures and anime soon!

Since abs is that old, isn’t it a bit strange that it is only used for figurine recently? Because of its semi-soft properties, it’s less restrictive, so the sculptor has a lot more leeway to do whatever he wants. I am not sure what the cost factors are, but the physical advantages are obvious.

Thank you for being part of the positive and informative internet. They’re different properties, and break under different conditions. Polyurethane, normally used for cold cast and/or polystone can give of hydrogen cyanide fumes when heated too aggressively. And that you can check your old plastic figures etc to see if they can be re-cycled. Is it due to the process or materials used to make the cold cast. Polyethylene is used mainly (like you stated) in the manufacture of plastic bags and recyclable containers and would be very difficult to paint because of it’s ability to repel ne arly everything.

Polyester which is sometimes used for polystone and cold cast porcelain is what is commonly used to bind fibreglass. Epoxy isn’t commonly used for cold cast because it requires post baking after it has been demoulded so therefor negates the title ‘cold cast’.

I can make appropriate corrections to the article?

Resin Vs. Stone by terracastproducts.com

Resin products were made to be kept outside without taking abuse from weathering. It’s not uncommon to see cracks in the sidewalk where tree roots have grown up from under the concrete. Our resin is 90% less dense than traditional materials making it indestructible, since it can bend and absorb impact without breaking. We have specially manufactured our product to be lightweight for proper functionality. Since our products are reusable, they should never go in the trash, and end up in a landfill. Like other types of plastic, it is lightweight, very durable and even recyclable. For example, take two planters of the same size, shape and style. This result gives a difference of about 90% in product weight alone.

They can be stained from dirt and chemicals and can also keep your plants and other foliage from getting the water needed to grow. Our resin product’s durability is maintained regardless of whether it’s -40 degrees or 140 degrees. However, where stone and concrete break from tree roots or other abuse, resin has the flexibility to let the roots grow while avoiding permanent damage from anything else. Afterward impact or movement, the planter returns to its proper position with no permanent damage. We have six standard stone blends, and if you don’t see one you like, we can create custom colors for you. Most of our customers are pleasantly surprised at how much it does look like the material it mimics. Furthermore, once they are filled with soil and plants, they’ll be even heavier for a sturdy installation.

Granite Vs. Marble Vs. Quartz: Which Countertop Material Is The Best? by visionarybaths.com

In fact, in many ways, they’re all pretty similar, which can make it difficult for homeowners to choose which material they’d like to use. It’s a natural stone composed of a variety of different materials, including quartz, mica and more.

Marble, like granite, is a natural stone (limestone) and every slab is unique. That’s why quartz is usually referred to as engineered stone. Granite, marble and quartz can last up to 20 years or more with proper care. But only granite and marble qualify as “natural stone” because they don’t go through a manufacturing process – they’re mined as-is. They wouldn’t choose laminate floors over hardwood, so why would they choose engineered stone over natural stone? Marble especially is more vulnerable to acidic liquids like wine and juice. Since both are porous, both need to be sealed at installation. Because it isn’t porous, quartz doesn’t need to be sealed like this. That means you’ll never have to worry about someone else having the same counters as you do. Neither granite nor marble nor quartz are cheap, though some slabs are less expensive than othe rs. But it doesn’t have the same high-end, natural look that marble and granite do. In the end, marble is marble, and if you’re set on the look of of marble, there’s no substitute. Dicta autem sed suscipit illum molestias, adipisci vero omnis, nemo possimus porro odit recusandae rerum iure. Animi, ad nam laudantium aliquam, totam quidem enim!

If you’re not sure what the difference between granite, marble and quartz counters is, we’ve laid it out for you below.

It comes in a variety of colors and every slab is unique because it’s mined, not manufactured. In general, the coloration is more consistent with a more visible pattern than granite. While most slabs are at least 92 percent quartz, the rest is made up pigment and the resin used to bind the crushed quartz together. Granite is the second softest, making quartz the most resistant to lasting damage.

All three materials are “natural” in the sense that they’re stone. Quartz is “engineered” because it’s crushed and mixed with pigment. Those pores can also potentially harbor hard-to-reach bacteria and germs. Quartz, on the other hand, is engineered in a certain way, which means that many slabs might look similar and won’t look quite as “natural” as granite or marble. It’s also easiest to maintain and often more durable than marble and granite. Granite is usually more expensive than quartz but less expensive than marble.

But the coloration might not be as consistent, and it can’t match the luxurious look of a marble slab. It might be a bit more expensive, but if you’re set on marble and it matches your kitchen or bathroom, it’s worth it for your countertop.

Bonded Marble Statues: Frequently Asked Questions by everlifememorials.com

You may want to check with a local marble and granite fabricator. Our product offerings are intended to be affordable to the majority public. Will the cemetery let me install it on a headstone?

What percentage of the statue is marble powder and resin?

Bonded marble weighs approximately 90% of the weight of natural marble but is superior in strength due.

They are usually listed in the phone book under “marble” or “granite”. Some cemeteries will allow them where as some completely ban statues of any kind.

Natural marble statues are hand carved and command a hefty price. There is a five (5) year guarantee against deterioration or discoloration.

Restoration Terms Terminology Definitions and Glossary by prorestorers.org

Abrasion resistance is not necessarily related to hardness as believed by some, but is more clearly comparable with toughness. Typically reduces over spray and reduces material use 40-60% compared to conventional spray systems. Methanol, once in your system, can metabolize to formaldehyde then to formic acid. It is also caused by the application of paint over unseasoned wood.

Annealing is also used to remove tension in a piece of metal before brazing, helping to reduce warpage. These definitions allow people to make a distinction between genuine antique pieces, vintage items, and collectible objects. There are a number of different styles of antique furniture depending on when and where it was made.

The aromatic solvents are produced from the distillation of petroleum or coal tar. Not all molecules with ring or loop structures are aromatic. It is obtained either as a residue from the distillation of petroleum or from natural deposits. Asphaltum is used in the manufacture of paints, varnishes, stains and glazes, giving an intensely black/brown color. Herringbone banding of mitered form was used on walnut from the early 18th century. The use of one of the three wood bleaches to remove natural color, dyes, or water stains from wood. Causes windows to bind, doors to stick and damage to finished surfaces when they are contacted before the coating fully cures. The sharp contrast between dark and lighter areas on the wood surface is usually considered unattractive. Blushing can be prevented by slowing down the drying/evaporation rate of the solvents in the coating by adding a retarder. The rebound of atomized coating, especially when applied by conventional air spray methods.

A common occurrence in conventional compressed air driven spray equipment. By definition the melting temperature of the braze alloy is lower (sometimes substantially) than the melting temperature of the materials being joined. When brazing sterling, care must be used to prevent firescale or firestain which is formed at higher temperatures than soldering. Generally attributed to poor surface preparation causing adhesion problems. It’s caused by a concentration of dye crystals left on the surface of the wood after the carrier evaporated. Choosing the proper brush, using good technique, and thinning the coating as needed all work to reduce or eliminate brush marks. Caused by surface tension gradients that arise during curing. Abrasion resistance can be enhanced by incorporation of surface modifying additives or wax. Accelerators are used to hasten the curing of a coating system. The two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces which may consist of valence forces and/or interlocking/mechanical action.

Used most often in production spraying settings where speed and quality are needed.

Often caused by applying the finish to thick, to heavily or excessive stirring and or air pressure in a pressurized paint pot. Methanol is highly toxic both in skin contact (as it can be readily absorbed) as well as by inhalation. Methyl alcohol is also known as methanol, methyl hydrate, or wood alcohol. It is caused by the application of a hard drying paint over a relatively soft paint or by the application of thick films, in which case the underlying surface remains relatively soft. As the name implies, an alligatored surface is one that resembles the hide of an alligator in that it is cracked into large segments. The soft undried, bottom layers of the thick film allow the surface film to shrink thereby causing the alligatoring. Antiblocking agents are usually waxes or synthetic polymers; a light dusting of talcum powder is sometimes used for the same purpose. It is an object that represents a previous era in human society. The alternative term antiquities commonly refers to the remains of ancient art and everyday items from antiquity, which themselves are often archaeological artifacts.

Items can be bought for personal use, gifts, and in the case of brokers and dealers, profit. In finishing the word “antiquing” refer to the art of making an object appear old or antique through distressing or applying an antique looking paint application accomplished with glazing techniques and or faux finishing techniques. Antique furniture includes dining tables, chairs, bureaus, chests etc. Many modern pieces of furniture often use laminate and wood veneer to inexpensively achieve the same effect. A class of relatively strong organic solvents which contain an unsaturated ring of carbon atoms. Asphalt consists of compounds of hydrogen and carbon with minor proportions of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. A process whereby a bulk liquid is transformed into a multiplicity of small drops. A poorly atomized spray pattern will consist of larger droplets that may not flow out to form a smooth and even coating. Bakelite was the first plastic made from synthetic components. Can be caused by rapid hot air drying or a wet finish in direct sun light, “sun drying” of a coating surface causing the “off gassing” of the solvents to be trapped producing large blisters.

One of the drying oils used to make conversion coatings like varnish. It should be noted that the boiling point for mixtures may be different from those of the components. The air pressure used to atomize the coating bounces off the surface being sprayed keeping the material from attaching to the surface and it’s lost as overspray.

At its liquid temperature, the molten filler metal and flux interacts with a thin layer of the base metal, cooling to form a strong, sealed joint. Appears as an air bubble where the finish has bridged the gap rather than conform to it. To fix the problem, wipe the surface with a rag wetted with the proper solvent or simply topcoat with a solvent-based coating. Also, the ability of a new top coat of finish to bind with previous coat by partially dissolve the surface and obtaining a chemical bond creating a continuous film instead of multiple layers of coatings. A slow evaporating, water miscible, relatively strong solvent.

Difference Between Resin and Plastic by differencebetween.com

Due to the presence of repetitive units, both have polymer characteristics.

For many years, people have used resins in a wide range of applications. We can obtain this compound directly from plants as exudations. Furthermore, they mainly consist of volatile liquid terpenes and fewer amounts of dissolved non-volatile solids thereby making the resins sticky (gluey) and thick. Synthetic resins are generally more stable, predictable and have a uniform character since we produce them under controlled conditions.

But, more correctly they are synthetic or semi-synthetic organic polymers of high molecular mass which are mouldable. Moreover, plastics being typical polymers of hydrocarbons also contain other elements such as oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen and halogens. For example, using plasticizers to reduce the rigidity of plastics. They are acrylics, silicones, polyesters, polyurethanes and halogenated plastics. Moreover, another difference between resin and plastic is that the plastics are more stable, predictable and lack impurities, unlike resins in which we cannot avoid impurities. Also, various additives in plastics have toxic characteristics.

Hence, this is a noteworthy difference between resin and plastic. Plastics are hard and dense in nature, whereas resins are viscous and gluey substances. The key difference between resin and plastic is that the resins are more of a natural origin since we directly derive them from plant oozes whereas the plastics are of synthetic polymeric nature. Resin and plastic are of an organic nature, which mainly consist of long hydrocarbon chains. However, while resins are more of a natural form, plastics are generally synthetic or semi-synthetic in nature. But, talking from a chemical point of view, we can categorize resins as a group of solid or semi-solid amorphous compounds.

Also, they usually have a clear yellowish brown colour and are highly viscous substances that harden into transparent solids with treatment. Bicyclic terpenes are the most common type of terpenes that we can find in resins. We can broadly categorize plastics as a type of synthetic resin. However, there are plastics purely natural in character, and we call them as bioplastics since we usually produce them from renewable plant material.

Often, we add other organic and inorganic additives to plastics, to improve their properties and colour. Resins are more of a natural origin since we directly derive them from plant oozes whereas plastics are of synthetic polymeric nature. Therefore, this origin is the key difference between resin and plastic. Furthermore, plastics are slow in degrading and, therefore, causes environmental pollution. Whereas, the resins, being purely natural, remain environmentally friendly. Apart from that, another difference between resin and plastic is their appearance.

Remodeling Terms Cheat Sheet by fixr.com

For example, electric is one of the most efficient fuels, but it is also one of the most expensive. An acrylic stucco finish looks very similar to a traditional stucco finish. Aluminum connections must be installed more precisely than copper, but if they are, aluminum actually runs at a lower temperature.

It is also less expensive than cherry, which is much harder. For example, alder cabinets with a gray finish are not necessarily made from gray alder. When asbestos fibers are disturbed, they can become airborne. It can also be used for furniture, flooring, decking, and other applications. This would save money compared with having an entire blueprint drawn. They are placed near the base of trees and shrubs and in flower beds, and soak the ground around them, allowing water to penetrate into the soil. If after a period of time the water level on the outside has reduced more than the water level on the inside, there is probably a leak.

This means that the volume of the gas changes based on the pressure applied to it. It is used to provide fuel to buildings, such as propane and natural gas.

These are used to control an electrical circuit, which can, for example, start or stop a heater.

It is used to protect seams in aluminum trim and to protect edges and corners in drywall and other materials needing to be joined. This type of circuit breaker protects against fires caused by low level arcing currents that are not detected by conventional devices that protect against excess current. A unit with a higher rating is more fuel efficient than a unit with a lower rating. Acrylic stucco also requires more skill to apply, because it dries faster. Air handlers do not heat or cool the air, but instead pull the heat out of the air and direct it outside in the summer and inside in the winter. All three components together make up a complete lightning protection system. Aluminum cable is not able to carry as much load as copper cable, so the wires would have to be much bigger for the same purposes. When the asbestos deteriorates, particles can become airborne and this is a serious health hazard. They can then be inhaled and lead to fatal respiratory illnesses. Sod is carpet-like squares of grass with a layer of roots and soil that can be laid down to create a lawn much quicker than using seed.

This should be taken into consideration when deciding whether or not to pay for installation. Traditionally these were made using a printing process that produced a white line on a blue background. It may also be possible to make changes to an existing blueprint if the project is a minor addition to an existing structure. Whiteprints replaced blueprints because they were easier and safer to produce. Brackets can also be used to strengthen joins between two materials. Brackets can be used to bear weight and also for decoration. It involves placing a bucket on a step in a filled pool, and marking the water level both inside and outside the bucket. Built-ins are therefore customized to the room and not detachable. Since every built-in project has to be customized to the home and the homeowner’s specific requirements, it is best to get quotes from a few professionals to get a good idea of what a certain project will cost. The pipe is flexible, so it is easy to run through walls and floor joists.

If there are obstacles in the ceiling such as joists or heating ducts that get in the way of installation, this will add to the cost. Consider what speeds are necessary for the network before paying extra for capacity that may never be needed.

The term “caulking” is also used to refer to the process of applying this type of sealant. For example, silicone caulking is good for sealing tubs and sinks because it resists water, and latex caulking expands to fill gaps, so it is good for baseboards and crown molding. They are good for keeping heat out in the summer and keeping it in the winter.

Paper Glossary by cliffordpaper.com

Woodfree unprinted waste (waste that has left the mill but not reached the consumer, typically from the printer or converter). Advanced cores can contain very specialized absorbent cellulose fibers, synthetic fibers and super-absorbent polymers as well as fluff pulps. The purpose of accelerated aging is to simulate the effect of aging in the laboratory. Occurs when neutral materials are exposed to atmospheric pollutants or when two paper materials come in contact.

It has a soft surface which will not wrinkle or cockle when photographs are pasted or glued on it, and when wet with such adhesive, it will not ‘bleed’. Many book papers are sufficiently alkali-proof and glassine and waxed papers are also satisfactory. The anti-aging properties in alkaline paper make it a logical choice for documents where permanence is essential. Various fibers are used and weights of paper made; the chief requirements are freedom from acidity and reducible sulfur compounds. Laminates and extruded coatings applied by the customer ensure an appropriate liquid barrier. Normally back liner is made out of inferior grade pulp compared to top liner. Rolls are normally checked for baggy areas by striking with a baton and listening for variations in audible pitch. Bale dimensions and weight varies widely depending on the baling material and handling capabilities. The inner bark is a layer of living bark that separates the outer bark from the cambium and in a living tree is generally soft and moist. Basis weight is also called as substance and grammage in metric system of units.

Also called “hogged fuel” boilers, biomass boilers make steam and heat for mill use. They should have maximum smoothness of surface and stiffness. Woodfree printed waste (post consumer waste, collected from homes, offices etc). Abhesive coatings are applied to surfaces to prevent sticking, etc. Absorbent cores usually contain a combination of absorbent cellulose fibers (fluff pulps) and super-absorbent polymers composed of polyacrylates.

Accordion folds are used on products such as brochures and maps. Acid free paper is anti rust and is used for metal wrapping. Aging also causes reduction in brightness and yellowing effect. Though the amount of moisture in dry pulp/paper will depend on the atmospheric condition of humidity and temperature but as a convention 10% moisture is assumed in air dry pulp/paper. Careful selection of fibers and coloring matters is necessary, but no particular strength requirements need be met.

Copper salts or other inhibitors are sometimes used for silver tissues. An aqueous coating usually gives a gloss, dull, or matte finish and helps prevent the underlying ink from rubbing off. As a result of the “smeary” grinding, the fiber structure closes homogeneously. Aseptic grade board is clay-coated on one side and is suitable for gravure, offset, and flexographic printing. This is used as a moisture barrier; also to resist action of weak acids and alkalis. The outer bark is a layer of dead bark that forms the exterior surface of the tree stem. Basic dyes are economical, have high color strength but very poor light-fastness.

Nice Agreement Current Edition Version by uspto.gov

Raw materials, unworked or semi-worked, are in principle classified according to the material of which they consist. In all other cases, the criterion indicated under (a), above, applies.

Cases adapted to the product they are intended to contain are in principle classified in the same class as the product. Goods intended to form part of another product are in principle classified in the same class as that product only in cases where the same type of goods cannot normally be used for another purpose. Leasing services are analogous to rental services and therefore should be classified in the same way.

The Differences Between Quartz and Quartzite Countertops by marble.com

Unfortunately, the purchasers often don’t know the answer to the question – however, there is a fundamental difference between the two types of stones. Quartzite is marginally harder than marble and other stones, like limestone and travertine. The slab will also not be 100% uniform in mineral composition and appearance. Thus, while quartzite does not have perfectly uniform physical properties throughout the stone slab, quartz countertops do.

The composition of the resin is often a trade secret of the manufacturer, so even the stone seller might not even know it. This article will delineate the differences, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each stone type to help you make the right choice for your home.

The advantages of quartzite are that it is a naturally occurring stone, and offers a beautiful aesthetic that many consider similar to marble countertops. For some people, there is no substitute to natural quartzite. The composition of quartz differs from manufacturer to manufacturer because each one uses a slightly different composition of resin that gives rise to different physical properties of the manufactured stone. Many people prefer to purchase a manufactured product over a natural product to know the precise physical properties, as opposed to the comparably unpredictable properties of a naturally occurring product.

WorkSafeBC by worksafebc.com

They are considered to represent a high risk to individuals but a low risk to the community. Where an employer recharges extinguishers “in-house,” a workplace label will suffice if a supplier label is not already on the extinguisher. Suppliers who pressurize such cartridges must provide a supplier label; employers who pressurize their own cartridges must provide, at minimum, a workplace label. If the original supplier label becomes illegible or is accidentally removed from the hazardous product, the supplier must provide a supplier label. They are considered to represent a moderate risk to individuals and a limited risk to the community.

They are considered to represent a high risk to both the individual and the community. Labels must be applied to individual cartridges unless an alternative acceptable arrangement is used. Where a supplier and employer wish to adopt this alternative or any arrangement in which the employer undertakes to apply supplier labels to cartridges contained in an outer container, the employer should establish the arrangement in writing. Safe handling instructions must be provided through the worker education and training program. Workplace labels must be applied if the hazardous product is not in the original container.

Chapter 62 by ilocis.org

The major concern during mining and production is the presence of silica and asbestos. Where possible, industrial substitution of less hazardous agents can reduce occupational exposure. Regular medical examinations of mineral-dust-exposed workers should include evaluations for respiratory symptoms, lung function abnormalities and neoplastic disease. In addition to individual reports of illness, data from groups of workers should be collected for prevention programmes.

It occurs in the earth’s crust as phosphate rock, and it is also the chief component of the bony structure of teeth.

Apatite is used in laser crystals and as a source of phosphorus and phosphoric acid. Fluorine may be present in the dust and may cause toxic effects. Asbestos is a term used to describe a group of naturally occurring fibrous minerals which are widely distributed throughout the world. Chrysotile and the various amphibole asbestos minerals differ in crystalline structure, in chemical and surface characteristics, and in the physical characteristics of their fibres. Asbestosis, asbestos-related pleural disease, malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are specific diseases associated with exposure to asbestos dust.

Bauxites are the richest form of these weathered ores, containing up to 55% alumina. The lower-grade ores may be upgraded by crushing and washing to remove clay and silica waste. Severe pulmonary disability has been reported in workers employed on smelting bauxite that is combined with coke, iron and very small amounts of silica. It occurs as a sediment in many geological formations in all parts of the world and contains in varying amounts feldspars, mica and admixtures of quartz, calcspar and iron oxide.

Clay is often extracted in open-cast pits but sometimes in underground mines. The clay is taken to the surface by truck or cable transport. Different types of clay form the basic material in the manufacture of pottery, bricks and tiles, and refractories. Appropriate ventilation and engineering controls are required. Clays usually contain large amounts of free silica, and chronic inhalation can cause silicosis. Catalytic hydrogenation yields hydrocarbon oils and gasoline. While in 1900, 94% of the world’s energy requirements were met by coal and only 5% by petroleum and natural gas, coal has been increasingly replaced by liquid and gaseous fuels throughout the world. The artificial material is produced from bauxite by smelting in an electric furnace. Diatomaceous earth is a soft, bulky material composed of skeletons of small, prehistoric aquatic plants related to algae (diatoms). Diatomaceous earth also finds use as a drilling-mud thickener; an extender in paints, rubber and plastic products; and as an anti-caking agent in fertilizers.

Feldspars may also contain irritating sodium oxide (soda spars), potassium oxide (potash spars), and calcium oxide (lime spars) in insoluble form. Health hazards are related to the toxic properties of silica. Fluorspar is a principal source of fluorine and its compounds. In addition, it finds use in the ceramics, paint and optical industries.

Chronic inhalation or ingestion may cause loss of weight and appetite, anaemia, and bone and teeth defects. It appears that calcium fluoride intensifies the fibrogenic action of silica in the lungs. The colors—pink, grey, salmon, red and white—are desirable for dimension granite. Therefore, silicosis is a major health hazard in granite mining. Mining is commonly underground, with hand drills for selective mining of narrow veins. Amorphous graphite is commonly associated with sandstone, slate, shale, limestone and adjunct minerals of quartz and iron sulphides.

Flake graphite is usually associated with metamorphosed sedimentary rock such as gneiss, schists and marbles. Consequently, normal excavating equipment such as shovels, bulldozers and scarifiers are used in open-cast mining, and a minimum of drilling and blasting is necessary. Recent reports note that the materials implicated in exposures leading to severe cases with massive pulmonary fibrosis are likely to be mixed dusts. Workers may remain asymptomatic during many years of exposure, and disability often comes suddenly. Acceptable dust levels must be adjusted to accommodate the effect these disease-potentiating dusts may have on workers’ health. Protection against the risks associated with these chemicals should be part of any health programme. Crushing, grinding, conveying and packaging equipment presents a danger of machinery accidents. Hot piping, kiln walls and drier enclosures should be lagged to reduce the danger of burns and to limit heat radiation to the work environment. Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of calcium carbonate in the form of mineral calcite.

The amount and type of impurities within the minerals may also determine the potential hazard associated with inhalation of the dust.

Where effective engineering controls are not possible, workers should wear approved respiratory protection, including the proper selection of respirators. Finally, the education of workers and employers regarding the hazards and proper control measures is an essential component of any prevention programme. Apatite is a natural calcium phosphate, usually containing fluorine. The industrial features which have made asbestos so useful in the past are the high tensile strength and flexibility of the fibres, and their resistance to heat and abrasion and to many chemicals. The fibrotic changes which characterize the pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, are the consequence of an inflammatory process set up by fibres retained in the lung. It consists of a mixture of minerals formed by the weathering of aluminium-bearing rocks. Gibbsite is more readily soluble in sodium hydroxide solutions than boehmite, and is therefore preferred for alumina production.

Clay is a malleable plastic material formed by the weathered disintegration residues of argillaceous silicate rock; it usually contains 15 to 20% water and is hygroscopic. In its plastic state, clay can be moulded or pressed, but when fired it becomes hard and retains the shape into which it has been formed. Clay may be used without any processing in dam construction; in situ, it sometimes serves as a cover for gas stored in lower stratum.

Skin contact with wet clay may cause skin drying and irritation. Coal is a natural, solid, combustible material formed from prehistoric plant life. Pyrolysis or destructive distillation yields coal tar and hydrocarbon gases, which can be upgraded by hydrogenation or methanation to synthetic crude oil and fuel gas. Gasification produces carbon monoxide and hydrogen (synthetic gas), from which ammonia and other products can be made. Natural corundum and artificial corundum (alundum or artificial emery) are usually relatively pure. Feldspar is a general name for a group of sodium, potassium, calcium and barium aluminium silicates. Feldspar serves as a bond for abrasive wheels, and it finds use in insulating compositions, tarred roofing materials and fertilizers. Chronic inhalation may cause silicosis due to the presence of substantial amounts of free silica. Flint is used as an abrasive, a paint extender and a filler for fertilizer. Historically, flint has been an important mineral because it was used to make some of the first known tools and weapons.

It is used as a flux in open hearth steel furnaces and in metal smelting. Acute inhalation may cause gastric, intestinal, circulatory and nervous system problems. Cases of bronchitis and silicosis have been reported among fluorspar miners. When heating fluorspar, there is also the hazard of hydrofluoric acid being formed, and the relevant safety measures should be applied. The coarse-grained igneous rock granite consists of quartz, feldspar and mica in shapeless interlocking grains. Most, if not all, natural graphite ores contain crystalline silica and silicates. The impurities are often in isolated pockets in the veins of ore. Deposits of amorphous graphite are also underground, but usually in much thicker beds than the veins of lumps. The ore is drilled, blasted and hand-loaded into wagons and brought to the surface for grinding and impurity separation. Ar tificial graphite is produced by the heating of coal or petroleum coke, and generally contains no free silica.

Inhalation of carbon, as well as associated dusts, may occur during the mining and milling of natural graphite, and during the manufacture of artificial graphite. Graphite pneumoconiosis is progressive even after the worker has been removed from the contaminated environment.

It is essential that periodic analyses are made of the raw ore and airborne dust for crystalline silica and silicates, with special attention to feldspar, talc and mica. In addition to being exposed to the physical hazards of mining, graphite workers may also face chemical hazards, such as hydrofluoric acid and sodium hydroxide used in graphite purification. Gypsum deposits may contain quartz, pyrites, carbonates and clayey and bituminous materials. In gypsum calcining, workers are exposed to high environmental temperatures, and there is also the hazard of burns. The pneumoconiosis observed in gypsum miners has been attributed to silica contamination.

Paper Dictionary by paperonweb.com

Woodfree unprinted waste (waste that has left the mill but not reached the consumer, typically from the printer or converter). Printed mechanical waste (post consumer waste, typically newspapers).

Absorbent cores usually contain a combination of absorbent cellulose fibers (fluff pulps) and super-absorbent polymers composed of polyacrylates. The resulting product is dissolved in acetone and extruded into filaments and the acetone evaporated. The purpose of accelerated aging is to simulate the effect of aging in the laboratory. Accordion folds are used on products such as brochures and maps. Occurs when neutral materials are exposed to atmospheric pollutants or when two paper materials come in contact. Aging also causes reduction in brightness and yellowing effect. Though the amount of moisture in dry pulp/paper will depend on the atmospheric condition of humidity and temperature but as a convention 10% moisture is assumed in air dry pulp/paper. The web can be bonded with resin and/or thermal plastic resins dispersed within the pulp. As a result of the “smeary” grinding, the fiber structure closes homogeneously. The surface of the boxboard which forms the interior of the carton.

Rolls are normally checked for baggy areas by striking with a baton and listening for variations in audible pitch. Bale dimensions and weight varies widely depending on the baling material and handling capabilities. The outer bark is a layer of dead bark that forms the exterior surface of the tree stem.

Basic dyes are economical, have high color strength but very poor lightfastness. Basis weight is also called as substance and grammage in metric system of units. One of the unintended effect of beating is fiber length reduction. Woodfree printed waste (post consumer waste, collected from homes, offices etc). Abhesive coatings are applied to surfaces to prevent sticking, etc. Advanced cores can contain very specialized absorbent cellulose fibers, synthetic fibers and super-absorbent polymers as well as fluff pulps. Acetate fibers are moderately strong, generally soft and lustrous like rayon.

Acid free paper is anti rust and is used for metal wrapping. The ease with which pressurized air can flow through a paper’s thickness. The anti-aging properties in alkaline paper make it a logical choice for documents where permanence is essential. The treatment does not change the appearance of the board and is non-toxic and odorless. The term approach flow system refers specifically to the fan pump loop where in the pulp mixture is measured, diluted, mixed with necessary additives, and finally screened and cleaned before being discharged on to paper machine wire.

An aqueous coating usually gives a glo ss, dull, or matte finish and helps prevent the underlying ink from rubbing off. Laminates and extruded coatings applied by the customer ensure an appropriate liquid barrier. This is used as a moisture barrier; also to resist action of weak acids and alkalis. Normally back liner is made out of inferior grade pulp compared to top liner. The inner bark is a layer of living bark that separates the outer bark from the cambium and in a living tree is generally soft and moist.

In metric system of units, basis weight is the weight in grams of a single sheet of area one square meter. Also called “hogged fuel” boilers, biomass boilers make steam and heat for mill use.

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